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Questions



Brain Surface Anatomy 1

 
Cranial Nerve Anatomy 02
Which of the following cranial nerves serves some motor function, but does not serve a sensory function
 
Cranial Nerve Anatomy 06
Which of the following cranial nerves serves some motor function
 
Cranial Nerve Anatomy 03
Which of the following cranial nerves serves some sensory function, but does not serve a motor function
 
Cranial Nerve Anatomy 04
Which of the following cranial nerves serves both motor and sensory functions
 
Cranial Nerve Anatomy 05
Which of the following cranial nerves serves some sensory function
 
Cranial Nerve Anatomy 01

 
Autonomic Anatomy 03
Which one of the following locations contains cell bodies of sypmathetic preganglionic efferents
 
Autonomic Anatomy 02
As a result of a complete misunderstanding, a devil-worshipping blackbird stylist lesions your intermediolateral cell column bilaterally from C8 down to L2.After this, you suffer from loss of which of the following functions
 
Brain Anatomy 02
The arcuate fasciculus connects which of the following areas
 
Brain anatomy 01
In the section of gross brain shown above, what is the name of the structure indicated by the unnecessarily large green arrow
 
Cerebrovascular Anatomy 09
Which of the following structures does the anterior choroidal artery supply
 
Autonomic Anatomy 01
Which of the following cranial nerves carry parasympathetic fibers
 
Cerebellar Microanatomy 03
An infarction which damagescells of thetype indicated by the unnecessarily large red arrowwill result in which of the following reactions
 
Cerebellar Microanatomy 02
What kind of cell is indicated by the unnecessarily large red arrow in the picture above
 
Cerebellar Microanatomy 01
What the heck are we looking at here
 
Cerebrovascular Anatomy 04
In the gadolinium bolus MRA shown above, what is the structure indicated by the great big arrow
 
Cerebrovascular Anatomy 08
In the angiogram shown above, what is the structure indicated by the great big red arrow
 
Cerebrovascular Anatomy 07
In the angiogram shown above, what is the structure indicated by the really big red arrow
 
Cerebrovascular Anatomy 06
In the gadolinium bolus MRA shown above, what is the structure indicated by the unnecessarily large pointy red indicator thingy
 
Cerebrovascular Anatomy 05
In the fluoroscopic study shown above, what is the structure indicated by the unnecessarily large red arrow
 
Cerebrovascular Anatomy 03
Which of the following images shows the sigmoid sinus
 
Cerebrovascular Anatomy 02
An occlusion of the indicated vessel would result in which of the following deficits
 
Cerebrovascular Anatomy 1
This image shows:
 
Spinal Cord Anatomy 01
The T2 MRI above shows healthy spinal cord at the C6 level.Which of the following statements is most accurate about the area highlighted in red
 
Cerebellar Anatomy 04
In the structure highlighted in red in the image above, parallel fibers arise from:
 
Cerebellar Anatomy 03
Fibers in the inferior cerebellar peduncle are predominantly:
 
Cerebellar Anatomy 02
The most abundant neurons in the human brain are:
 
Cerebellar Anatomy 01
In the cerebellum, parallel fibers arise from:
 



User Forums and Comments



Re: Re: Neuroanatomy
Excellent question.Somatosensory association cortex is a more general term, whereas secondary somatosensory cortex (SS2) is a more specifically defined area. Secondary somatosensory cortex is one region of somatosensory association cortex; there are others...
 
Re: Neuroanatomy
Is the secondary somatosensory cortex the same as the somatosensory association cortex
 
Re: Neuroanatomy
_
 
There is also a neuroanatomy user forum:
http://FrontalCortex.com/page=forums&topic=user_forums&qid=f19
 
Neuroanatomy
For medical students studying neuroanatomy, feel free to ask your questions here, or post answers to questions here.
 
Gray's Anatomy

 
U Idaho Anatomy
A nice anatomy review from U Idaho
 



Online Course Content



Cranial Nerves
Cranial NervesAn introduction to the cranial nervesTerminology:By the end of this section, make certain that you understand what each of these terms mean, and can apply them appropriately. If applicable, make sure you can find each item on a whole brain, brain section, or image of a brain...
 
Vasculature of the brain
Vasculature of the BrainA tutorial on the arterial and venous supply of the brain.Terminology:By the end of this section, make certain that you understand what each of these terms mean, and can apply them appropriately. If applicable, make sure you can...
 
The Brainstem
The BrainstemAn introductory overview of the brainstemTerminology:By the end of this section, make certain that you understand what each of these terms mean, and can apply them appropriately. If applicable, make sure you can find each item on a whole brain, brain section, or image of a brain...
 
Neuroanatomy landmarks: Basal ganglia
Neuroanatomy Landmarks: Basal GangliaAn introduction to the structures that comprise the basal ganglia, and to the surrounding tissuesTerminology:By the end of this section, make certain that you understand what each of these terms mean, and can apply them appropriately...
 
Neuroanatomy landmarks: Thalamus
Neuroanatomy Landmarks: DiencephalonAn introduction to the thalamus and structures around it.Terminology:By the end of this section, make certain that you understand what each of these terms mean, and can apply them appropriately. If applicable, make sure...
 
Neuroanatomy landmarks: Ventricles
Neuroanatomy Landmarks: VentriclesA discussion of the structure and function of the ventricles and CSF.Terminology:By the end of this section, make certain that you understand what each of these terms mean, and can apply them appropriately. If applicable,...
 
Looking at the brain from different angles
Looking at the Brain from Different AnglesThe brain is a complex 3-dimensional object. To gain an understanding of its anatomy, it is necessary to be able to recognize its various structures from different points of view. This section will also serve as...
 
Brain and Brainstem
Brain and BrainstemThis section discusses the anatomical strcutures of the cerebral hemispheres and the brainstem, and their related functions.Terminology:By the end of this section, make certain that you understand what each of these terms mean, and can apply them appropriately...
 
Overview and Surface Anatomy
Overview and Surface AnatomyOverview of the human brain, and a look at its surface anatomyTerminology:By the end of this section, make certain that you understand what each of these terms mean, and can apply them appropriately. If applicable, make sure...
 
Cells are Batteries
Section 1: Cells are BatteriesCells are Batteries. They generate an electrical potential (voltage) across the cell membrane. For most cells, this is analogous to the DC current generated by a battery. The video above shows how the voltage across...
 
Synapses and the Neuromuscular Junction (NMJ)
Section 6: Synapses and the Neuromuscular Junction (NMJ)Neurons can use electrical potentials to send signals from one part of the neuron to another, but to communicate with other neurons (or muscle cells or other target cells), they usually use chemical signals...
 
Muscle Fiber Action Potential
Section 5: Muscle Fiber Action PotentialWhen the cell membrane of neurons or muscle fibers is depolarized enough, they propagate a nondecremental wave of electrical polarization called an action potential. Neurons use these action potentials to quickly transmit information across distance...
 
The Neuron Action Potential
Section 4: Neuron Action PotentialWhen the cell membrane of neurons or muscle fibers is depolarized enough, they propagate a nondecremental wave of electrical polarization called an action potential. Neurons use these action potentials to quickly transmit information across distance...
 
Meat Wires
Section 3: Meat WiresNerve cells (neurons) and muscle cells (muscle fibers) are specialized cells whose cell membrane potential can change. These changes contribute to the basic functioning of these cells. Nerve cell processes can carry electical signals similar to how wires do...
 
Why Are Cells Batteries?
Section 2: Why Are Cells BatteriesIn this second section of this chapter, we explore the origin of the cell membrane potential. We've established that Cells are Batteries.Batteries have an electrical potential. That's what makes them batteries...
 
Basic Physiology of Nerve and Muscle
Basic Physiology of Nerve and MuscleLearning objectives: To gain an understanding of basic physiology of nerves and muscleTo understand what a membrane potential is and what makes it happenTo understand what an action potential is, and how it comes aboutTo...
 
Neuroanatomy
A set of educational materials intended to supplement a second-year medical school neuroscience course.If you are currently using this to study neuroanatomy, I would request that you direct any questions to me through the Neuroanatomy User Forum on FrontalCortex...
 
How to use this course
How to use this courseThis is anonline supplement to a neuroanatomy course. This resource is in progress,with a target completion date of December 12, 2014.
 
Introduction to the Nervous System
Introduction to the Nervous SystemYou may want to start by reviewing anatomical directions and planes of section, particularly as they apply to neuroanatomy. If you are already really comfrotable with this nomenclature, click here to start with a brief introduction to nerve cell physiology...
 
Directions and Planes of Section in Neuroanatomy
An orientation to the nervous system, introducing common terms used to describe directions and orientation, specifically as it pertains to neuroanatomy.When we are discussing directions in anatomy, definitions are based on a person being in...
 
The Neurological Physical Exam, and Approach to Diagnostic Problems in Neurology
Tying all this stuff together, this section focuses on how anatomy and the clinical neuro exam interrelate, and describes strategies for reaching a diagnosis in neurological clinical situations.
 
Audition and the Vestibular System
Audition and the Vestibular SystemAn introduction to the anatomy and physiology of the ear and structures involved in hearing and the vestibular system.Terminology:By the end of this section, make certain that you understand what each of these terms mean, and can apply them appropriately...
 
Vision
VisionA introduction to the anatomy and physiology of the eye and structures that are involved in vision.Terminology:By the end of this section, make certain that you understand what each of these terms mean, and can apply them appropriately. If applicable,...
 
Cerebellum
Cerebellum A description of the anatomy and function of the cerebellum.Terminology:By the end of this section, make certain that you understand what each of these terms mean, and can apply them appropriately. If applicable, make sure you can find each item...
 
Sensory Pathways
Sensory PathwaysThis section introduces spinal cord anatomy, and discusses the anatomy of the various pathways that bring sensory information from the skin and body back to the central nervous system.Terminology:By the end of this section, make certain that...
 
midsagittal section of brain - illustration from Gray's anatomy (image)

 
Midsagittal section of brain - illustration from Gray's anatomy (image)

 
Grey Matter vs White Matter (image)

 
Images
A picture paints a thousand words.Sometimes, it's just very helpful to be able to show someone a picture of what you're talking about. For example, this is what a glioblastoma multiforme looks like on MRI: Or, here is a map of the Ohio river valley:FrontalCortex...
 
Diagram of segmental distribution of the cutaneous nerves of the right upper extremity. Anterior view. (image)

 
Anatomy of the Distal Median Nerve (image)

 
Lateral Femoral Cutaneous Sensory Nerve – Anatomy (image)

 
Femoral Nerve - Anatomy (image)

 
Distal Median Nerve Anatomy (image)

 
Deep anatomy of the right hand (image)

 
Superfical anatomy of the right hand. (image)

 
Superfical anatomy of the right hand. (image)

 
Deep anatomy of the right hand (image)

 
Deep anatomy of the right hand (image)

 
Superfical anatomy of the right hand. (image)

 
Superficial Anatomy of the Right Hand (image)

 
Superfical nerves of the hand. (image)

 
Deep anatomy of the right hand (image)

 
Axillary Motor Nerve - Anatomy (image)

 
Saphenous Nerve – Sensory distribution (image)

 
Lateral Femoral Cutaneous Sensory Nerve Anatomy (image)

 
Saphenous Nerve – Sensory distribution (image)

 
Serratus Anterior (image)

 
EMG Tutorial
A searchable, illustrated tutorial for electrodiagnsotic studies, by Steven Arbogat, D.O., and J. Douglas Miles, M.D., Ph.D.This tutorial covers both nerve conduction studies (NCS) and electromyography (EMG). We have attempted to organize the tutorial in a...
 
Lateral Femoral Cutaneous Sensory Nerve – Anatomy (image)

 
Lateral Femoral Cutaneous Sensory Nerve Anatomy (image)

 
Femoral Nerve - Anatomy (image)

 
Axillary Motor Nerve - Anatomy (image)

 
Facial Mononeuropathy/Bell’s Palsy
Facial Mononeuropathy/Bell’s PalsyNerve Recording Sites Stimulation SitesFacial (m) bilat Orbicularis Oculi earBlink Reflexes bilat Orbicularis Oculi supraorbital notchNeedle ExaminationPerform needle exam on the affected side of the face.
 
Phrenic Mononeuropathy
Phrenic MononeuropathyNerve Recording Sites Stimulation SitesPhrenic (m) bilat xyphoid process anterior neckNeedle ExaminationNeedle exam is not usually performed.
 
Myopathy
MyopathyNerve Recording Sites Stimulation Sites F-WavesMedian (s) index wrist orRadial (s) thumb forearmMedian (m) APB wrist and elbow wristSural...
 
Peripheral Neuropathy/Motor Neuron Disease
Peripheral Neuropathy/Motor Neuron DiseaseNerve Recording Sites Stimulation Sites F-WavesMedian (s) index and middle wristUlnar (s) 5th wristRadial (s) thumb forearmMedian...
 
Lumbosacral Plexopathy
Lumbosacral PlexopathyNerve Recording Sites Stimulation Sites F-WavesSural (s) bilat ankle calfSup Peron (s) bilat ankle lat legPeroneal (m) bilat EDB ankle and above knee...
 
Sciatic Mononeuropathy
Needle ExaminationPerform needle exam on the symptomatic limb. Test the minimum of once muscle innervated by the L2, L3, L4, L5 and S1 spinal roots (see Appendix C). Test the lumbosacral paraspinal muscles at one or more levels.If abnormalities are detected,...
 
Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome
arsal Tunnel SyndromeNerve Recording Sites Stimulation Sites F-Waves Sural (s) ankle calfSup Peron (s) ankle lat legMed Plantar(s) bilat ankle soleLat Plantar(s) bilat ankle...
 
Femoral Mononeuropathy
Femoral MononeuropathyNerve Recording Sites Stimulation Sites F-WavesSural (s) ankle calfSup Peron (s) ankle lat legSaphenous (s) bilat leg legPeroneal (m) EDB ...
 
Peroneal Mononeuropathy
Peroneal MononeuropathyNerve Recording Sites Stimulation Sites F-WavesSural (s) ankle calfSup Peron (s) bilat ankle lat legPeroneal (m) bilat EDB ankle, bel & above...
 
Routine Lower Extremity Back/Leg Pain and Lumbosacral Root Search
LOWER EXTREMITYRoutine Lower Extremity Back/Leg Pain and Lumbosacral Root SearchNerve Recording Sites Stimulation Sites F-WavesSural (s) ankle calf Sup Peron (s) ankle lat legPeroneal...
 
Other Upper Extremity Mononeuropathies (Axillary, Musculocutaneous, Suprascapular, Spinal Accessory, etc…)
Nerve Conductions StudiesMedian sensory recording the index and middle fingers.Ulnar sensory recording the ring finger. Radial sensory recording the dorsal thumb.Lateral antebrachial cutaneous sensory recording the forearm.Median motor recording the abductor pollicis brevis with F-Waves...
 
Radial Mononeuropathy
Nerve Conductions Studies Median sensory recording the index and middle fingers. Ulnar sensory recording the ring finger. Radial sensory recording the bilateral dorsal thumbs.Median motor recording the abductor pollicis brevis with F-Waves.Ulnar motor recording...
 
Ulnar Mononeuropathy
Median sensory recording index and middle fingers.Ulnar sensory recording the llittle finger.Radial sensory recording the dorsal thumb.Dorsal Ulnar sensory recording the dorsum of the handMedian motor recording the abductor pollicis brevis with F-Waves.Ulnar...
 
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Nerve Conductions StudiesMedian sensory recording the index and middle fingers. Ulnar sensory recording the llittle finger.Radial sensory recording the dorsal thumb. Median motor recording the abductor pollicis brevis with F-Waves. Ulnar motormotor recording...
 
Brachial Plexopathy (including Thoracic Outlet Syndrome)
Brachial Plexopathy (including Thoracic Outlet Syndrome)Median sensory recording the bilateral index and middle fingers.Median sensory recording the bilateral thumbs.Ulnar sensory recording the bilateral llittle fingers.Radial sensory recording the bilateral dorsal thumbs...
 
Recommended approaches to common clinical problems.
This section covers our recommended approaches to common conditions the electromyographer is asked to evaluate.Neck/Arm pain and root search Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
 
Review of the relevant anatomy (MS)
Demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis and the leukoencephalopathies affect the myelin around axons of the central nervous system (CNS). Myelinated axons are concentrated in the white matter of the CNS. The images below provide a quick review of white matter in the CNS...
 
Thoracic Spinal Cord Cross-Section (image)

 
Deep anatomy of the right hand (image)

 
Superfical anatomy of the right hand. (image)

 
Deep anatomy of the right hand (image)

 
Deep anatomy of the right hand (image)

 
Superfical anatomy of the right hand. (image)

 
Deep anatomy of the right hand (image)

 
Superfical anatomy of the right hand. (image)

 
Superficial Anatomy of the Right Hand (image)

 
Superfical nerves of the hand. (image)

 
Distal Median Nerve Anatomy (image)

 
Flexor Digitorum Sublimis, Highlighted (image)

 
Normal samples
In order to recognize pathology, it is necessary to know what normal tissues look like. To that end, we present here a set of slides which depict normal anatomy, both on the gross and microscopic level. Throughout this course, whenever new pathologic concepts...
 
Vascular Disease 1: Reaction to ischemic injury
There are different types of ischemic injury. Ischemia can affect the entire brain, or just a particular vascular distribution. It can be brief, as in a TIA, or it can endure. The patterns of damage we see in gross and microscopic pathology reflect the focality and temporal course of the ischemia...
 
Needle EMG Studies
A searchable, illustrated tutorial for electromyography (EMG). Describes innervation, anatomy, appropriate needle placement, and activation techniques for muscles commonly studied using EMG.
 
Illustration of relevant anatomy (image)

 
First Dorsal Interosseous Muscle, Highlighted (image)

 
Abductor Pollicis Brevis (APB) Muscle Highlighted (image)

 
Abductor Digiti Minimi (image)

 
Abductor Digiti Minimi Surface View (image)

 
First Dorsal Interosseous Surface View (image)

 
Pronator Teres (image)

 
Commonly used stains
In this section, we'll go over some of the more commonly used stains in neuropathology. Different stains might be used in different tissues. For example, the Gomorri trichrome stain is especially helpful in muscle to find certain types of myopathy....
 
Circle of Willis
The circle of Willis is an anastamosis where the posterior circulation (those arteries derived from the vertebral arteries) and the anterior circulation (those arteries which arise from the carotid arteries) come together.The carotid arteries enter the skull along the anterior aspect of the neck...
 
Substantia Nigra

 
Neonatal Cerebellum
Neonatal cerebellum looks different from mature cerebellum. There is an external granule cell layer, which can be seen in these images as a rim of blue cells around the edge of the cerebellum.
 
Normal samples (image)

 
Normal samples (image)

 
Normal samples (image)

 
Normal samples (image)

 
Normal samples (image)

 
Normal samples (image)

 
Normal samples (image)

 
Normal samples (image)

 
Normal samples (image)

 
Review of the relevant anatomy (image)

 
Review of the relevant anatomy (image)

 
Review of the relevant anatomy (image)

 
Review of the relevant anatomy
Erk.EEEK.Braaaak.
 
Review of the relevant anatomy

 
Review of the relevant anatomy

 
Review of the relevant anatomy

 
Review of the relevant anatomy

 
Review of the relevant anatomy

 
Review of the relevant anatomy

 
Review of the relevant anatomy

 
Review of the relevant anatomy

 
Review of the relevant anatomy

 
Review of the relevant anatomy

 
Review of the relevant anatomy

 
Review of the relevant anatomy

 
Review of the relevant anatomy

 
Review of the relevant anatomy

 
Review of the relevant anatomy

 
Review of the relevant anatomy

 
Review of the relevant anatomy

 
Review of the relevant anatomy

 



Gallery Images



Grey Matter vs White Matter

 
Gray - Saphenous Nerve

 
Flexor Digitorum Sublimis, Highl

 
First Dorsal Interosseous Muscle

 
Abductor Pollicis Brevis (A

 
Abductor Digiti Minimi Surface V

 
First Dorsal Interosseous Surfac

 
Gray29.png

 
Gray79.png

 
Gray748.png

 
Gray1211.png

 
Gray1219.png

 
Gray - Brachial Plexus

 
Pronator teres

 
Gray - Nerves of upper extremity

 
Skull Base Foramina

 
Gray812