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Introduction to the Nervous System

Last updated on Sunday, August 31 2014 by jdmiles

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Introduction to the Nervous System

You may want to start by reviewing anatomical directions and planes of section, particularly as they apply to neuroanatomy.  If you are already really comfrotable with this nomenclature, click here to start with a brief introduction to nerve cell physiology.

 

This section involves learning a lot of new vocabulary.  It is important that you understand this new terminology before moving on to the next sections, as we will be tossing these terms around a lot when discussing brains and other nervous-systemy bits. 

 

Terminology:

By the end of this section, make certain that you understand what each of these terms mean, and can apply them appropriately.  If applicable, make sure you can find each item on a whole brain, brain section, or image of a brain.

 

  • horizontal plane
  • coronal plane
  • transverse plane
  • sagittal plane
  • parasagittal sections
  • rostral
  • caudal
  • anterior
  • ventral
  • posterior
  • dorsal
  • superior
  • inferior
  • proximal
  • distal
  • afferent
  • efferent
  • neuron
  • axon
  • dendrite
  • soma
  • neurotransmitter
  • synapse
  • myelin
  • glia
  • gray matter
  • white matter
  • cortex
  • ganglia
  • nuclei
  • tract
  • nerve
  • fasciculus
  • cerebrum
  • brainstem
  • spinal cord
  • root
  • brachial plexus
  • lumbosacral plexus
  • central nervous system
  • peripheral nervous system
  • cerebral hemisphere
  • frontal lobe
  • parietal lobe
  • occipital lobe
  • temporal lobe
  • limbic lobe
  • diencephalon
  • thalamus
  • hypothalamus
  • midbrain
  • pons
  • medulla
  • cerebellum
  • open medulla
  • closed medulla
  • folia
  • olives
  • superior colliculi
  • inferior colliculi
  • quadrigeminal plate
  • sulcus
  • fissure
  • gyrus
  • foramen
  • central sulcus
  • lateral fissure
  • preoccipital notch
  • parietooccipital sulcus
  • calcarine sulcus
  • parieto-occipital sulcus
  • paracentral lobule
  • insular cortex
  • precentral gyrus
  • postcentral gyrus
  • cingulate gyrus
  • septum pellucidum
  • corpus callosum
  • fornix
  • anterior commissure
  • hypothalamic sulcus
  • epithalamus
  • subthalamus
  • massa intermedia
  • lamina terminalis
  • optic chiasm
  • mammillary bodies
  • hypophysis (pituitary)
  • hypophyseal stalk (pituitary stalk)
  • pineal body
  • deep nuclei (deep ganglia)
  • cerebrospinal fluid
  • ventricles
  • ventricular system
  • lateral ventricles
  • interventricular foramina (foramina of Monro)
  • third ventricle
  • cerebral aqueduct
  • 4th ventricle
  • lateral foramen (foramen of Luschka)
  • medial foramen (foramen of Magendie)
  • tela choroidea
  • ependyma
  • choroid plexus
  • arachnoid villi
  • cisterns