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Malformations 01
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen Which of the following gene mutations is most closely associated with this neuronal migration disorder
 
Demyelinating Diseases 02
Which of the following genes is associated with an increased risk of developing multiple sclerosis
 
Autonomic Anatomy 03
Which one of the following locations contains cell bodies of sypmathetic preganglionic efferents
 
spinal segments innervating muscles of the lower extremity
Which of the following is most accurate regarding spinal segments innervating muscles of the lower extremity
 
Lower extremity muscle function and innervation 1
Which movement would be most affected by a lesion of the L2 and L3 spinal roots
 
Lower extremity muscle function and innervation 2
Which muscle or muscles would be most affected by a lesion of the S1 and S2 spinal roots
 
Spinal segments innervating muscles of the lower extremity 1
Which of the following spinal segments typically contributes to the innervation of the quadratus femoris muscle in the lower extremity
 
Spinal segments innervating muscles of the lower extremity 2
Regarding the muscles of the lower extremity, which of the following muscles typically receives innervation from the S2 spinal segment
 
Lower Extremity EMG 01
A patient presents with lower extremity weakness. Needle EMG study of the gastrocnemius and gluteus maximus reveals large, long, polyphasic motor unit action potentials. Needle EMG study of the vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, extensor digitorum longus and tibialis anterior are normal...
 



Online Course Content



Neuroanatomy
A set of educational materials intended to supplement a second-year medical school neuroscience course. If you are currently using this to study neuroanatomy, I would request that you direct any questions to me through the Neuroanatomy User Forum on FrontalCortex...
 
S1
The muscles that are bolded below are prodiminanty S1 innervated. abductor digiti quinti pedisabductor hallucis brevisbiceps femoris - long headbiceps femoris - short headextensor hallucis longusflexor digitorum longusgastrocnemius - lateral headgastrocnemius...
 
Sural Sensory Nerve - recording behind the Lateral Malleolus (antidromic)
Sural Sensory Nerve (antidromic)Origin:  S1 root, sacral plexus, sciatic nerve, tibial nerve.Recording Site:  Lateral MalleolusReference Site:  Side of the footGround:  Top of footStimulation Site:  Back of lower legProcedure:  The patient should be lying...
 
Medial and Lateral Plantar Mixed Nerves (orthodromic)
Medial and Lateral Plantar Mixed Nerves (orthodromic)Origin:  S1 root, sacral plexus, sciatic nerve, tibial nerveRecording Site:  Ankle (bar electrode)Reference Site:  Ankle (bar electrode)Ground:  Top of footStimulation Site:                Medial foot (medial...
 
Peroneal Motor Nerve - recording the Extensor Digitorum Brevis
Origin:  L5-S1 roots, sacral plexus, sciatic nerve, peroneal nerveRecording Site:  Extensor Digitorum Brevis muscle (EDB)Reference Site:  Top of foot below the 4th and 5th toesGround:  Top of footStimulation Sites:  Ankle, below fibular neck and kneeProcedure: ...
 
Tibial Motor Nerve - recording the Abductor Hallucis
Origin:  S1-S2 roots, sacral plexus, sciatic nerve, tibial nerve.Recording Site:  Abductor Hallucis muscle (AH)Reference Site:  Base of big toeGround:  Top of footStimulation Sites:  Ankle and kneeProcedure:  The recording electrode is placed over the belly of the AH...
 
Tibial Motor Nerve - recording the Abductor Digiti Quinti Pedis
Origin:  S1-S2 roots, sacral plexus, sciatic nerve, tibial nerveRecording Site:  Abductor Digiti Quinti Pedis muscle (ADQP)Reference Site:  Top of foot below 5th toeGround:  Top of footStimulation Site:  Ankle Procedure:  The recording electrode is placed over the belly of the ADQP...
 
H-Reflex - recording the Soleus
Origin:  S1, sacral plexus, sciatic nerve, tibial nerve.Recording Site:  Soleus Reference Site:  Achilles tendon, just above the ankleGround:  Back of leg, halfway between the knee and recording site Procedure:  The patient should be placed in the prone position...
 
Semitendonosus
Muscle Name: semitendonosusAKA:  musculus semitendinosusAbbreviation: STSpinal Nerve Roots:    L4    L5    S1Plexus:    lumbosacral plexusNamed Nerves:    sciatic nerve (tibial division)Proximal Attachment:  ischial tuberosityDistal Attachment:  Medail surface...
 
Semimembranosus
Muscle Name: semimembranosusAKA:  musculus semimembranosusAbbreviation: SMSpinal Nerve Roots:    L4    L5    S1Plexus:    lumbosacral plexusNamed Nerves:    sciatic nerve (tibial division)Proximal Attachment:  Ischial tuberosityDistal Attachment:  Medail...
 
Peroneus Longus
Muscle Name: peroneus longusAKA:  musculus peroneus longusAbbreviation: PLSpinal Nerve Roots:    L5    S1Plexus:    lumbosacral plexusNamed Nerves:    superficial peroneal nerve    common peroneal nerve    sciatic nerveProximal Attachment:  Distal Attachment: ...
 
Gluteus Maximus
Muscle Name: gluteus maximusAKA:  musculus gluteus maximusAbbreviation: GMAXSpinal Nerve Roots:    L5    S1    S2Plexus:    lumbosacral plexusNamed Nerves:    inferior gluteal nerveProximal Attachment:      Gluteal surface of ilium, lumbar fascia, sacrum,...
 
Gluteus Medius
Muscle Name: gluteus mediusAKA: musculus gluteus medius Abbreviation: GMEDSpinal Nerve Roots:    L4    L5    S1Plexus:    lumbosacral plexusNamed Nerves:    superior gluteal nerveProximal Attachment:  The gluteal surface of the ilium, deep to the gluteus maximus...
 
Gastrocnemius - Medial Head
Muscle Name: gastrocnemius - medial headAKA:  Abbreviation: MGSpinal Nerve Roots:    S1    S2Plexus:    lumbosacral plexusNamed Nerves:    tibial nerve    sciatic nerveProximal Attachment:  Medial condyle of the femur.Distal Attachment:  CalcaneusAction: Plantar flexes the foot and flexes the knee...
 
Gastrocnemius - Lateral Head
Muscle Name: gastrocnemius - lateral headAKA:  Abbreviation: LGSpinal Nerve Roots:    S1    S2Plexus:    lumbosacral plexusNamed Nerves:    tibial nerve    sciatic nerveProximal Attachment:  Lateral condyle of the femurDistal Attachment:  CalcaneusAction: Plantar flexes the foot and flexes the knee...
 
Flexor Digitorum Longus
Muscle Name: flexor digitorum longusAKA:  Abbreviation: FDLSpinal Nerve Roots:    L5    S1Plexus:    lumbosacral plexusNamed Nerves:    tibial nerve    sciatic nerveProximal Attachment:  Posterior surface of the tibia.Distal Attachment:  Base of the distal phalanges of digits 2, 3, 4 and 5...
 
Extensor Hallucis Longus
Muscle Name: extensor hallucis longusAKA:  musculus extensor hallucis longusAbbreviation: EHLSpinal Nerve Roots:    L4    L5    S1Plexus:    lumbosacral plexusNamed Nerves:    deep peroneal nerve    common peroneal nerve    sciatic nerveProximal Attachment: ...
 
Biceps Femoris - Short Head
Muscle Name: biceps femoris - short headAKA:  Abbreviation: BF-SHSpinal Nerve Roots:    L5    S1Plexus:    lumbosacral plexusNamed Nerves:    sciatic nerve (peroneal division)Proximal Attachment: Lateral edge of the linea aspera and the upper portion of the supracondylar line...
 
Biceps Femoris - Long Head
Muscle Name: biceps femoris - long headAKA:  musculus biceps femoris longusAbbreviation: BF-LHSpinal Nerve Roots:    L5    S1Plexus:    lumbosacral plexusNamed Nerves:    sciatic nerve (tibial division)Proximal Attachment:  ischial tuberosity and lenea aspera...
 
Extensor Digitorum Brevis
Muscle Name: extensor digitorum brevisAKA:  musculus extensor digitorum brevisAbbreviation: EDBSpinal Nerve Roots:    L4    L5    S1Plexus:    lumbosacral plexusNamed Nerves:    deep peroneal nerve    common peroneal nerve    sciatic nerveProximal Attachment: ...
 
Abductor Hallucis Brevis
Muscle Name: abductor hallucis brevisAKA:  musculus abductor hallucisAbbreviation: AHBSpinal Nerve Roots:    S1    S2Plexus:    lumbosacral plexusNamed Nerves:    medial plantar nerve    tibial nerve    sciatic nerveProximal Attachment:  Tuberosity of the...
 
Abductor Digiti Quinti Pedis
Muscle Name: abductor digiti quinti pedisAKA:  Abductor digiti minimi pedis, Abductor minimi digiti, Abductor digiti quinti, musculus abductor digiti minimi pedisAbbreviation: ADQPSpinal Nerve Roots:    S1    S2Plexus:    lumbosacral plexusNamed Nerves:   ...
 
Tensor Fasciae Latae
Muscle Name: tensor fasciae lataeAKA:  Abbreviation: TFLSpinal Nerve Roots:    L4    L5    S1Plexus:    lumbosacral plexusNamed Nerves:    superior gluteal nerveProximal Attachment:  Distal Attachment:  Action: ...Needle Insertion: ...Activation for EMG:  Pitfalls:  Notes:  
 
Spinal Nerve Roots
Choose A Spinal Segment:  Cervical:    C1    C2    C3    C4    C5    C6    C7    C8  Thoracic:    T1    C2    C3    C4    C5    C6    C7    C8    C9    C10    C11    C12  Lumbar:    L1    L2    L3    L4    L5  Sacral:    S1    S2    S3    S4    S5
 
Extensor Digitorum Longus
Muscle Name: extensor digitorum longusAKA:  musculus extensor digitorum longusAbbreviation: EDLSpinal Nerve Roots:    L4    L5    S1 Plexus:    lumbosacral plexusNamed Nerves:    deep peroneal nerve    common peroneal nerve    sciatic nerveProximal Attachment: ...
 
Flexor Hallucis Brevis
Muscle Name: flexor hallucis brevisAKA:  musculus flexor hallucis brevisAbbreviation: FHBSpinal Nerve Roots:    S1    S2Plexus:    lumbosacral plexusNamed Nerves:    medial plantar nerve    tibial nerve    sciatic nerveProximal Attachment:  lantar surface...
 
Soleus
Muscle Name: soleusAKA:  Abbreviation: SOLSpinal Nerve Roots:    S1    S2Plexus:    lumbosacral plexusNamed Nerves:    tibial nerve    sciatic nerveProximal Attachment:  Distal Attachment:  Action: ...Needle Insertion: ...Activation for EMG:  Pitfalls:  Notes:  
 
Tibialis Posterior
Muscle Name: tibialis posteriorAKA:  Abbreviation: TPSpinal Nerve Roots:    L5    S1Plexus:    lumbosacral plexusNamed Nerves:    tibial nerve    sciatic nerveProximal Attachment:  Distal Attachment:  Action: ...Needle Insertion: ...Activation for EMG:  Pitfalls:  Notes:  
 
Lumbosacral Plexopathy
Lumbosacral PlexopathyNerve            Recording Sites        Stimulation Sites           F-WavesSural (s) bilat        ankle                calfSup Peron (s) bilat    ankle                lat legPeroneal (m) bilat    EDB                ankle and above knee  ...
 
Sciatic Mononeuropathy
Needle ExaminationPerform needle exam on the symptomatic limb.  Test the minimum of once muscle innervated by the L2, L3, L4, L5 and S1 spinal roots (see Appendix C).  Test the lumbosacral paraspinal muscles at one or more levels.If abnormalities are detected,...
 
Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome
arsal Tunnel SyndromeNerve            Recording Sites        Stimulation Sites     F-Waves    Sural (s)        ankle                calfSup Peron (s)    ankle                lat legMed Plantar(s) bilat    ankle                soleLat Plantar(s) bilat    ankle  ...
 
Peroneal Mononeuropathy
Peroneal MononeuropathyNerve            Recording Sites        Stimulation Sites                F-WavesSural (s)        ankle                calfSup Peron (s) bilat    ankle                lat legPeroneal (m) bilat    EDB                ankle, bel & above...
 
Routine Lower Extremity Back/Leg Pain and Lumbosacral Root Search
LOWER EXTREMITYRoutine Lower Extremity Back/Leg Pain and Lumbosacral Root SearchNerve            Recording Sites        Stimulation Sites            F-WavesSural (s)        ankle                calf    Sup Peron (s)    ankle                lat legPeroneal...
 
H-Reflex - recording the Soleus
Origin:  S1, sacral plexus, sciatic nerve, tibial nerve.Recording Site:  Soleus Reference Site:  Achilles tendon, just above the ankleGround:  Back of leg, halfway between the knee and recording site Procedure:  The patient should be placed in the prone position...
 
Tibial Motor Nerve - recording the Abductor Digiti Quinti Pedis
Origin:  S1-S2 roots, sacral plexus, sciatic nerve, tibial nerveRecording Site:  Abductor Digiti Quinti Pedis muscle (ADQP)Reference Site:  Top of foot below 5th toeGround:  Top of footStimulation Site:  Ankle Procedure:  The recording electrode is placed over the belly of the ADQP...
 
Tibial Motor Nerve - recording the Abductor Hallucis
Origin:  S1-S2 roots, sacral plexus, sciatic nerve, tibial nerve.Recording Site:  Abductor Hallucis muscle (AH)Reference Site:  Base of big toeGround:  Top of footStimulation Sites:  Ankle and kneeProcedure:  The recording electrode is placed over the belly of the AH...
 
Peroneal Motor Nerve - recording the Extensor Digitorum Brevis
Origin:  L5-S1 roots, sacral plexus, sciatic nerve, peroneal nerveRecording Site:  Extensor Digitorum Brevis muscle (EDB)Reference Site:  Top of foot below the 4th and 5th toesGround:  Top of footStimulation Sites:  Ankle, below fibular neck and kneeProcedure: ...
 
Medial and Lateral Plantar Mixed Nerves (orthodromic)
Medial and Lateral Plantar Mixed Nerves (orthodromic)Origin:  S1 root, sacral plexus, sciatic nerve, tibial nerveRecording Site:  Ankle (bar electrode)Reference Site:  Ankle (bar electrode)Ground:  Top of footStimulation Site:                Medial foot (medial...
 
Sural Sensory Nerve - recording behind the Lateral Malleolus (antidromic)
Sural Sensory Nerve (antidromic)Origin:  S1 root, sacral plexus, sciatic nerve, tibial nerve.Recording Site:  Lateral MalleolusReference Site:  Side of the footGround:  Top of footStimulation Site:  Back of lower legProcedure:  The patient should be lying...
 
Cerebral cortex demonstrating cotton-wool plaques (image)

 
ALS
Also referred to as motor neurone disease (by the British), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive and ultimately fatal disorder characterized by degeneration of the upper and lower motor neurons of the brain and spinal cord. ALS occurs worldwide...
 
PS1 familial Alzheimer disease, beta amyloid immunohistochemical stain, neocortex. (image)

 
PS1 familial Alzheimer's disease, cotton-wool plaque, tau immunohistochemistry (image)

 
Familial (PS1) Alzheimer's disease, cerebral cortex, H&E stain (image)

 



Gallery Images



Cotton Wool Plaques PS1 mutation

 
PS1-AD

 
PS1 BAMihc

 
A07-35PS1HP

 
A07-35PS1LP

 
A7-35PS1CBLLMmp

 
TaySachs1

 
Ecchordosis1