There are 486 questions on various topics in Neurology in the FrontalCortex neurology question bank.

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Questions



Parts of a Neuron 1

 
Miosis 1

 
iPED Conference Question #3
Which of the following are most easily and effectively incorporated into face-to-face learning
 
Electromyography and Neuromuscular Disorders - Chapter 2 Quiz - Question 4
In this illustration of a neuron, what is the name of the structure indicated by the unnecessarily large green arrow
 
Saphenous Nerve
Which of the following statements about the saphenous nerve is most accurate
 
Sensory distribution of the median nerve
Which of the following images best illustrates the sensory distribution of the median nerve
 
Myelin 10
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen This is an axial section of gross brain through the pons. The lesion shown in this image is associated with which of the following clinical scenarios
 
Basic Stains 01
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen The image above shows a slice of brain from a person who had encephalitis caused by Candida. The tissue is stained with periodic acid Schiff (PAS) stain. Which of the following does PAS stain for
 
Neuromuscular 10
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen What does this biopsy specimen show
 
Neurocutaneous Syndromes 07
The parents of the Infant Marguerite Therese (shown in the image above) have brought her to your clinic because she suffers from frequent seizures, which affect only the right side of her body. They are wondering if Marguerite Therese is likely to eventually pass this disorder on to her children...
 
Infections 01
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen Which of the following fungal organisms is most likely to result in this gross appearance
 
Normal Neuropil 02
The image above shows a section of normal neuropil, prepared with an H&E stain. What are the structures circled in green
 
Adult Brain Tumor Pathology 01
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen A 50 year old woman presents with slowly worsening seizures over 9 months. Imaging of the head reveals a mass lesion. The lesion is surgically resected, and an H&E preparation of the tumor is shown in the image above.What kind of tumor is this
 
Normal Neuropil 01
The image above shows a section of normal neuropil, prepared with an H&E stain. What are the structures circled in blue
 
Intraneuronal Inclusions 01
In the image above, note the structure indicated by the unnecessarily large green arrow. What substance is the primary constituent of this structure
 
Optic Pathway Gliomas 01
Regarding the tumor seen in this image, which of the following statements is most accurate
 
Brain anatomy 01
In the section of gross brain shown above, what is the name of the structure indicated by the unnecessarily large green arrow
 
Intracerebral white matter tracts 02
Whoa, dude! What is that structure
 
Toxicity and Characteristic Pathology 02
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen A 25 year old woman in previously good health is found at home, comatose and with bright red skin.  After a few days in the ICU, the patient expires.  An autopsy is performed. The brain is shown in the image above. What was the cause of death
 
Cords of the brachial plexus and the muscles they innervate 01
The extensor carpi ulnaris muscle is innervated by which of the following cords of the brachial plexus
 
Trunks of the brachial plexus and the muscles they innervate 01
The extensor pollicis longus muscle is innervated by which of the following trunks of the brachial plexus
 
Upper extremity muscle function and innervation 01
Of the following choices, which muscle receives the most proximal innervation from the median nerve
 
Upper extremity muscle function and innervation 01
Of the following choices, which muscle receives the most proximal innervation from the median nerve
 
Chiari Malformations 02
Which one answer below most correctly describes what is seen in the image above
 
Pediatric Brain Tumor Pathology 01
A developmentally delayed 4 year-old male presents with several months of worsening seizures and headaches. A head CT reveals a large mass with areas of calcification. The mass is removed surgically. The image above shows an H&E stain of a section taken from the mass...
 
Neurooncology 02
A 59 year-old man presents to the emergency department with new onset of seizures. MRI is suggestive of a mass lesion. A biopsy is performed, and a photomicrograph of the tissue obtained is shown above. Of the following, which is the most likely diagnosis
 
Leukodystrophies 01
During the workup of a child with a developmental delay, you obtain the above MRI. This image is most consistent with which of the following diagnoses
 
Myopathies 04
The image above shows an electron micrograph of a skeletal muscle biopsy. Which of the following statements about this condition is most accurate
 
Basic Neuropathology 03
Loss of the cells shown in this image is associated with which of the following exam findings
 
Basic Neuropathology 02
Which of the following statements is most accurate regarding the space indicated by the unnecessarily large red arrow in the image above
 
Cerebellar Microanatomy 03
An infarction which damages cells of the type indicated by the unnecessarily large red arrow will result in which of the following reactions
 
Cerebellar Microanatomy 02
What kind of cell is indicated by the unnecessarily large red arrow in the picture above
 
Cerebellar Microanatomy 01
What the heck are we looking at here
 
EEG electrode nomenclature
Using the nomenclature of the 10-10 system, what is the name of the EEG electrode highlighted in red in this illustration
 
Cerebrovascular Anatomy 03
Which of the following images shows the sigmoid sinus
 
Stroke Syndromes Imaging 01
One day after after the onset of this patient's stroke symptoms, the above FLAIR MRI image was taken. Of the following choices, which syndrome is most likely to be found in this patient
 
Neurocutaneous Syndromes 04
The parents of the Infant Marguerite Therese (shown in the image above) are concerned because she has recently developed seizures. Of the following options, which is the most likely diagnosis
 
Ataxia-Telangiectasia 01
Image courtesy of National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health A 10 year-old male presents with a history of grimacing, dysarthric speech, choreoathetosis, and ataxia of the limbs, which have been slowly progressing since early childhood. On exam,...
 
Cerebrovascular Anatomy 1
This image shows:
 
Vascular Territories 01
The above is an MRI diffusion-weighted image of an acute infarct.Which of the following vessels is the one most likely to be occluded in this patient
 
EEG Patterns 02
A 65 year-old right-handed male had an episode of sudden loss of consciousness about 1 month ago. He is now having an EEG as part of his workup. The sharply contoured waves circled in red represent:
 
EEG patterns 01
This EEG shows someone who is:
 
Pathology in Alzheimer dementia 01
Courtesy of National Institute of AgingThis pathology slide was obtained from an adult patient. Which of the following statements about this image is true
 
Imaging in Congenital Neurologic Syndromes 01
This image shows a T1 MRI of the brain of a newborn. What is the most likely diagnosis
 
Sensory innervation of the upper extremity
A 515 year-old Renaissance man presents to your office, complaining of numbness in the region highlighted in red in the image below.Of the following options, which nerve has a sensory distribution that best matches the region illustrated
 
Neurocutaneous Syndromes 03
Image (C) 2000-2005 Auckland District Health Board You are called to evaluate a newborn girl with unusual skin findings shown in the images above. The patient's mother suffers from seizures, mental retardation, and dental abnormalities. Which of the following...
 
Tremor 01
A very old man is seen in clinic by his Neurologist. He complains of more than 2 years of worsening tremor. The tremor is worse in the right hand. It improves slightly when he uses the hand to perform a task. He has no cognitive symptoms. He drinks 5 40-oz beers every night...
 
Wallenberg Syndrome 1
A famous elderly, retired model presents to the E.R. She had no neurologic defecits prior to this morning, when she awoke to several new symptoms, the most concerning to her of which are changes in the way her face looks, as shown in the image above. She...
 
Cerebellar Anatomy 04
In the structure highlighted in red in the image above, parallel fibers arise from:
 
Nerve Injuries Affecting the Upper Extremity
A Greek female deity was gouged in the axilla by a Narwhal yesterday. She presents to your clinic today complaining of numbness in the area shaded in green in the image above. She also, as pictured, is unable to extend her arm at the elbow, or abduct at the shoulder...
 
Nerve Injuries Affecting the Upper Extremity
A Greek female deity was gouged in the axilla by a Narwhal yesterday. She presents to your clinic today complaining of numbness in the area shaded in green in the image above. She also, as pictured, is unable to extend her arm at the elbow. Abduction at the shoulder has been spared...
 
Nerve Injuries Affecting the Upper Extremity
A Greek female deity was gouged in the axilla by a Narwhal yesterday. She presents to your clinic today complaining of numbness in the area shaded in green in the image above. She also, as pictured, is unable to extend her arm at the elbow. Abduction at the shoulder has been spared...
 
Nerve Injuries Affecting the Upper Extremity
A Greek female deity was gouged in the axilla by a Narwhal 6 weeks ago. She presents to your clinic today complaining of numbness in the area shaded in green in the image above. She also, as pictured, is unable to extend her arm at the elbow. Abduction at the shoulder has been spared...
 
Nerve Injuries Affecting the Upper Extremity
A Greek female deity was gouged in the axilla by a Narwhal yesterday. She presents to your clinic today complaining of numbness in the area shaded in green in the image above. She also, as pictured, is unable to extend her arm at the elbow. Abduction at the shoulder has been spared...
 
Disorders of Ocular Motility 2
A 499 year-old female presents with recent abrupt onset of abnormal eye movements. On exam, you see the movements shown in the image above as she follows your finger down and then up. Of the following options, which is the most likely site of the lesion
 
Disorders of Ocular Motility 1
A 499 year-old female presents with recent abrupt onset of abnormal eye movements. On exam, you see the movements shown in the image above as she follows your finger to the left and right. Of the following options, which is the most likely site of the lesion
 
Disorders of Ocular Motility 1
A 499 year-old female presents with recent abrupt onset of abnormal eye movements. On exam, you see the movements shown in the image above as she follows your finger to the left and right. Of the following options, which is the most likely site of the lesion
 
Disorders of Ocular Motility 1
A 499 year-old female presents with recent abrupt onset of abnormal eye movements. On exam, you see the movements shown in the image above as she follows your finger to the left and right. Of the following options, which is the most likely site of the lesion
 



User Forums and Comments



Comment
CAn I have access to these images
 
Bent in left CCA
Anyone can help us,that there is a bent in left cca from CT image. The bent ia at the strating of heart. The problem is sometimes the patient gets no power in legs and hands and chest pain (not hard). Feel to fall down. it lasts for 5-10 minutes. The toral recovery time is 2 hr...
 
Comment
Very infromative Images.
 
Most Important Neuropathology Topics for Neurology Residents
Okay, so here's the scenario.You're a neurology resident, and you're studying for some big boards-type exam.  FrontalCortex.com has hundreds and hundreds of neuropathology images and stuff, but you want to focus on the high-yield neuropathology...
 
Gray's Anatomy

 
Another Pathology Site
Another pathology site, where users can share path images and videos. Remember, you can do this on FrontalCortex, too!
 
Lots of New Stuff
There are a lot of new features on FrontalCortex which have been added over the past few months.Most significantly, we've added the ability for users to create and maintain multimedia online courses.  Check out the courses tab.  You'll find an online...
 
Another neuroradiology site
This is another radiology search site. I find it more cryptic than Goldminer. It doesn't return images, but will give you a list of internal hyperlinks which are often related to your search terms. When you click one of the links, you'll get a brief outline-form explanation...
 
Goldminer Radiology Search Engine
This is a cool idea - a search engine for radiology images. This is a product of the American Roentgen Ray Society (ARRS) and is on their website. It searches through tons of journals, picking out images that match your search query.
 
What is FrontalCortex.com?
FrontalCortex.com is a resource for residents, medical students, and attending physicians studying neurology.It features a free question bank with over 230 questions. Each of these questions has many permutations, so that you'll get a slightly different question each time you load it...
 
Try reloading this question.
This question has a good number of images and permutations programmed into it.Hit the reload button a few times, and you'll see what I mean.-jdm 
 
The BRAIN-O-METER
The Brain-O-Meter, shown above, lets you know what other users thought about this question.If a question gets 5 brains (), then most people who rated it thought it was excellent.  A question with 0 brains () is considered lousy by most people who rated it...
 
The RATE THIS QUESTION button
The rate this question button lets you enter feedback on a specific question.Clicking this button opens a simple form that prompts you for different categories of feedback. Use the drop-down menus to choose your ratings for the questions.Overall Rating: ...
 
The CLONE button
The clone button, shown above, lets you create a brand new question, using the current question as a template.Let's say you like the question you're looking at, but have some ideas as to how to make it better.  Click the clone button, and edit the...
 
The RANDOM QUESTION button
The random question button, shown above, will load a random question from the database. Use the button to simulate that wonderful feeling of taking a test. You never know what's going to come next.
 
The RELOAD button
The reload button, shown  above, will reload the same question.Because each question is really a computer program with many permutations, when you reload the question it will look different than the last time you saw it. Simpler questions differ only in the order in which the answers are presented...
 
EEG Image Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.
The EEG image used in this question comes courtesy of Wikimedia Commons. The image is an EEG of generalized 3Hz spike and wave discharges.  This image is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 2.0.  For full documentation, please see: http://commons...
 
Re: FrontalCortex Questions & Quizzes on Inborn Errors of Metabo
Can you identify the IEM associated with this MRI image
 



Online Course Content



Cranial Nerves
Cranial Nerves An introduction to the cranial nerves   Terminology:By the end of this section, make certain that you understand what each of these terms mean, and can apply them appropriately.  If applicable, make sure you can find each item on a whole brain, brain section, or image of a brain...
 
Vasculature of the brain
Vasculature of the BrainA tutorial on the arterial and venous supply of the brain.  Terminology:By the end of this section, make certain that you understand what each of these terms mean, and can apply them appropriately.  If applicable, make sure you can...
 
The Brainstem
The BrainstemAn introductory overview of the brainstem   Terminology:By the end of this section, make certain that you understand what each of these terms mean, and can apply them appropriately.  If applicable, make sure you can find each item on a whole brain, brain section, or image of a brain...
 
Neuroanatomy landmarks: Basal ganglia
Neuroanatomy Landmarks: Basal GangliaAn introduction to the structures that comprise the basal ganglia, and to the surrounding tissues  Terminology:By the end of this section, make certain that you understand what each of these terms mean, and can apply them appropriately...
 
Neuroanatomy landmarks: Thalamus
Neuroanatomy Landmarks: DiencephalonAn introduction to the thalamus and structures around it.  Terminology:By the end of this section, make certain that you understand what each of these terms mean, and can apply them appropriately.  If applicable, make sure...
 
Neuroanatomy landmarks: Ventricles
Neuroanatomy Landmarks: VentriclesA discussion of the structure and function of the ventricles and CSF.  Terminology:By the end of this section, make certain that you understand what each of these terms mean, and can apply them appropriately.  If applicable,...
 
Looking at the brain from different angles
Looking at the Brain from Different AnglesThe brain is a complex 3-dimensional object. To gain an understanding of its anatomy, it is necessary to be able to recognize its various structures from different points of view. This section will also serve as...
 
Brain and Brainstem
Brain and BrainstemThis section discusses the anatomical strcutures of the cerebral hemispheres and the brainstem, and their related functions.Terminology:By the end of this section, make certain that you understand what each of these terms mean, and can apply them appropriately...
 
Overview and Surface Anatomy
Overview and Surface AnatomyOverview of the human brain, and a look at its surface anatomy  Terminology:By the end of this section, make certain that you understand what each of these terms mean, and can apply them appropriately.  If applicable, make sure...
 
Synapses and the Neuromuscular Junction (NMJ)
 Section 6:  Synapses and the Neuromuscular Junction (NMJ)Neurons can use electrical potentials to send signals from one part of the neuron to another, but to communicate with other neurons (or muscle cells or other target cells), they usually use chemical signals...
 
Muscle Fiber Action Potential
 Section 5: Muscle Fiber Action PotentialWhen the cell membrane of neurons or muscle fibers is depolarized enough, they propagate a nondecremental wave of electrical polarization called an action potential.  Neurons use these action potentials to quickly transmit information across distance...
 
Meat Wires
 Section 3:  Meat WiresNerve cells (neurons) and muscle cells (muscle fibers) are specialized cells whose cell membrane potential can change.  These changes contribute to the basic functioning of these cells.  Nerve cell processes can carry electical signals similar to how wires do...
 
Why Are Cells Batteries?
 Section 2:  Why Are Cells BatteriesIn this second section of this chapter, we explore the origin of the cell membrane potential.  We've established that Cells are Batteries. Batteries have an electrical potential.  That's what makes them batteries...
 
Sodium-Potassium ATPase (image)

 
Cell Membrane Detailed Diagram Labeled (image)

 
NMJ (image)

 
Neuron with oligodendrocyte and myelin (image)

 
Cell Membrane Detailed Diagram Labeled (image)

 
Cell Membrane Detailed Diagram Blank (image)

 
Basic Physiology of Nerve and Muscle
 Basic Physiology of Nerve and MuscleLearning objectives:   To gain an understanding of basic physiology of nerves and muscleTo understand what a membrane potential is and what makes it happenTo understand what an action potential is, and how it comes aboutTo...
 
Introduction to the Nervous System
Introduction to the Nervous SystemYou may want to start by reviewing anatomical directions and planes of section, particularly as they apply to neuroanatomy.  If you are already really comfrotable with this nomenclature, click here to start with a brief introduction to nerve cell physiology...
 
Directions and Planes of Section in Neuroanatomy
   An orientation to the nervous system, introducing common terms used to describe directions and orientation, specifically as it pertains to neuroanatomy. When we are discussing directions in anatomy, definitions are based on a person being in...
 
Inferior (image)

 
Superior (image)

 
Electric Meat
Electric MeatWhy is the nervous system different from skin, liver, kidneys, or spleen  The fundamental building blocks of the nervous system and muscles are electrically active cells.   These cells process inputs and generate outputs.  Neurons are individual...
 
Ventral surface of the brain (image)

 
Cerebral Cortex
Cerebral CortexA description of the functions of different sections of the cerebral cortex. This includes (but is not limited to) the FrontalCortex.Terminology:By the end of this section, make certain that you understand what each of these terms mean, and can apply them appropriately...
 
Olfaction, Limbic System, and Autonomics
Olfaction, Limbic System, and AutonomicsAn overview of the olfactory system, limbic system, autonomic nervous system, and the hypothalamus.Terminology:By the end of this section, make certain that you understand what each of these terms mean, and can apply them appropriately...
 
Audition and the Vestibular System
Audition and the Vestibular SystemAn introduction to the anatomy and physiology of the ear and structures involved in hearing and the vestibular system.Terminology:By the end of this section, make certain that you understand what each of these terms mean, and can apply them appropriately...
 
Vision
VisionA introduction to the anatomy and physiology of the eye and structures that are involved in vision.Terminology:By the end of this section, make certain that you understand what each of these terms mean, and can apply them appropriately.  If applicable,...
 
Cerebellum
Cerebellum A description of the anatomy and function of the cerebellum.Terminology:By the end of this section, make certain that you understand what each of these terms mean, and can apply them appropriately.  If applicable, make sure you can find each item...
 
Motor Cranial Nerves
Motor Cranial NervesThis section describes the cranial nerves that carry motor information. Also discusses corticobulbar pathways.Terminology:By the end of this section, make certain that you understand what each of these terms mean, and can apply them appropriately...
 
Motor Pathways
Motor PathwaysThis section describes the anatomical structures that carry motor information from the brain to the body, including upper motor neuron and lower motor neuron pathways.Terminology:By the end of this section, make certain that you understand what...
 
Sensory Cranial Nerves
Sensory Cranial NervesThis section introduces the cranial nerves that provide sensory information. The nerves carrying general somatic sensation, visceral sensation, and the sensation of taste are described in detail. Audition, olfaction, and vision are...
 
Sensory Pathways
Sensory PathwaysThis section introduces spinal cord anatomy, and discusses the anatomy of the various pathways that bring sensory information from the skin and body back to the central nervous system. Terminology:By the end of this section, make certain that...
 
PCA stroke, medial surface of brain, labelled (image)

 
PCA stroke, medial surface of brain (image)

 
MRI - Enhancing Meninges with arrow (image)

 
MRI - Enhancing Meninges (image)

 
CT dense MCA highlighted (image)

 
MRI DWI left ACA stroke (image)

 
Right MCA stroke (image)

 
MRI Fluent Aphasia (image)

 
MRI acute right MCA stroke (image)

 
CT Circle of willis (image)

 
MRI T2 MCA ACA normal (image)

 
T2 MRI MCA ACA highlighted (image)

 
CTA Right M1 occlusion (image)

 
CT dense MCA (image)

 
Major Landmarks and Divisions of the Nervous System
Major Landmarks and Divisions of the Nervous System This section describes major landmarks of the nervous system, and what comprises the central and peripheral nervous system.  Terminology:By the end of this section, make certain that you understand what each...
 
Lobes of the cerebral hemispheres (image)

 
Brain Horizontal VHP (image)

 
Grey Matter vs White Matter (image)

 
NMJ (image)

 
Neuron soma (image)

 
Sagittal Plane (image)

 
Coronal Plane (image)

 
Horizontal Plane (image)

 
Neuropathology for Neurology Residents
Welcome to neuropathology for neurology residents.This online course was developed by Dr. Mark Cohen and Dr. Doug Miles.  It is intended to be used as the cornerstone for a resident-level neuropathology course, in conjunction with assigned textbook reading...
 
Assessments
 Informal Assessments How well does this learner know the material  You can get an estimate of a learner’s knowledge base by their discussion of an image or short video.You can get an idea of their interest by the questions they pose.  Mixing with Face-to-Face...
 
Online courses
On FrontalCortex.com, you can create a collection of multimedia resources organized into a coherent structure focused on one topic.This is considered an online course. An example of this is the neuropathology course, or the EMG course. Mixing with Face-to-Face...
 
Types of Teaching Resources on FrontalCortex.com
Think of FrontalCortex as a repository of resources that can help you learn or teach neurology.  By resources, we mean things like pages of hypertext, pictures, videos, multiple-choice questions, and so forth.Here's a list of the types of resources you...
 
Pages of Text or HTML with images
This kind of resource is more or less what you've been reading this presentation on: hypertext pages wihch mix text, hyperlinks, images and interactive images.Dr. Mark Cohen's lecture on Parkinsonian neurodegenerative diseases is a much stronger example...
 
Videos
Videos are very good for quickly conveying a lot of information, especially about movements.For example, this is the Babinski response: Teaching how to perform electromyography.  Mixing with Face-to-Face LearningDiscussing a topicShow appropriate videoAsk...
 
Moving Images
Sometimes, a brief movie showing something in motion tells the learner a whole lot more than can be easily expressed in words or in a still image.Some topics are not easily describedConcepts involving movements are hard to express in a still photograph.One option: pantomime...
 
Interactive Images
Sometimes, it is helpful to have extra information pop up when you mouse-over an image.This makes the content more interactive, and hopefully, allows the learner to try to determine for himself/herself what an image shows before revealing the answers. Some...
 
Interactive Images (image)

 
Interactive Images (image)

 
Adding Unnecessarily Large Green Arrows
Sometimes, you want to draw someone's attention to a specific detail in an image.  To save you some time, FrontalCortex.com has a built-in routine for adding Unnecessarily Large Green Arrows to images.To demonstrate, click this thumbnail:                                           NEXT ITEM  
 
Images
A picture paints a thousand words.Sometimes, it's just very helpful to be able to show someone a picture of what you're talking about.  For example, this is what a glioblastoma multiforme looks like on MRI:  Or, here is a map of the Ohio river valley:  FrontalCortex...
 
What kinds of resources can I find on FrontalCortex.com?
Think of FrontalCortex as a repository of resources that can help you learn or teach neurology.  By resources, we mean things like pages of hypertext, pictures, videos, multiple-choice questions, and so forth.Some people are looking for resources, so they...
 
Anatomy of the Distal Median Nerve (image)

 
Lateral Femoral Cutaneous Sensory Nerve – Anatomy (image)

 
Distal Median Nerve Anatomy (image)

 
Superfical nerves of the hand. (image)

 
Deep anatomy of the right hand (image)

 
Superfical anatomy of the right hand. (image)

 
Superfical anatomy of the right hand. (image)

 
Deep anatomy of the right hand (image)

 
Deep anatomy of the right hand (image)

 
Superfical anatomy of the right hand. (image)

 
Superficial Anatomy of the Right Hand (image)

 
Superfical nerves of the hand. (image)

 
Deep anatomy of the right hand (image)

 
Rhomboids highlighted. (image)

 
Rhomboid (image)

 
Pectoralis Major (image)

 
Latissimis dorsi highlighted (image)

 
Supraspinatous nerve (image)

 
This cartoon shows the infraspinaous muscles highlighted. (image)

 
Muscles connecting the upper extremity to the vertebral column. (image)

 
MSA Hot Cross Bun sign with arrow (image)

 
Lateral Femoral Cutaneous Sensory Nerve – Anatomy (image)

 
Supinator (image)

 
pronator quadratus highlighted (image)

 
Pronator Quadratus (image)

 
First Dorsal Interosseous (image)

 
Flexor Pollicis Brevis with arrow (image)

 
Flexor Pollicis Brevis (image)

 
Flexor Digitorum Profundus To Digit 4 (image)

 
Flexor Digitorum Profundus To Digit 5 (image)

 
Flexor digitorum profundus highlighted (image)

 
Flexor digitorum profundus highlighted (image)

 
Flexor Digitorum Profundus To Digit 2 (image)

 
Flexor digitorum profundus highlighted (image)

 
Flexor digitorum profundus highlighted (image)

 
Flexor Digitorum Profundus To Digit 3 (image)

 
Flexor Carpi Ulnaris highlighted (image)

 
Extensor Pollicis Longus (image)

 
Extensor Pollicis Brevis (image)

 
Extensor Carpi Ulnaris (image)

 
Tumefactive demyelination, H&E stain x 400 with arrow (image)

 
Review of the relevant anatomy (MS)
Demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis and the leukoencephalopathies affect the myelin around axons of the central nervous system (CNS).  Myelinated axons are concentrated in the white matter of the CNS.  The images below provide a quick review of white matter in the CNS...
 
Oligodendrocyte (image)

 
Thoracic Spinal Cord Cross-Section (image)

 
Extensor carpi radialis longus highlighted (image)

 
Pelizaeus Merzbacher disease, Coronal section, Close Up, labeled (image)

 
Deep anatomy of the right hand (image)

 
Superfical anatomy of the right hand. (image)

 
Deep anatomy of the right hand (image)

 
Deep anatomy of the right hand (image)

 
Superfical anatomy of the right hand. (image)

 
Deep anatomy of the right hand (image)

 
Superfical anatomy of the right hand. (image)

 
Superficial Anatomy of the Right Hand (image)

 
Superfical nerves of the hand. (image)

 
Superfical nerves of the hand. (image)

 
Distal Median Nerve Anatomy (image)

 
Flexor Digitorum Sublimis, Highlighted (image)

 
Normal samples
In order to recognize pathology, it is necessary to know what normal tissues look like. To that end, we present here a set of slides which depict normal anatomy, both on the gross and microscopic level. Throughout this course, whenever new pathologic concepts...
 
Alzheimer Disease
Alzheimer's Disease is the most common dementing illness and can occur at any age over 30. It tends to affect women more than men, even when survival differences are taken into account. It is relatively uncommon before age 65, affecting about 0.1% of the...
 
Viral Encephalitis - MRI with arrow (image)

 
The Pathology of Alzheimer Disease
A.     Epidemiology AD is the most common dementing illness and can occur at any age over 30. It tends to affect women more than men, even when survival differences are taken into account. It is relatively uncommon before age 65, affecting about 0.1% of...
 
Silver Stain - Senile Plaque (image)

 
hyaline inclusions trichrome x200 with arrow (image)

 
Illustration of relevant anatomy (image)

 
For comparison, normal brain (image)

 
Cavitated MCA infarct, lateral surface of brain, labeled (image)

 
For Comparison, MRI DWI - Acute Left PCA Infarct (image)

 
Posterior cerebral artery infarct, mid sagittal section of cerebral hemisphere, Labeled (image)

 
The muscles of the palmar surface of the left hand. (image)

 
Flexor Digitorum Superficialis (image)

 
Flexor Carpi Radialis highlighted (image)

 
Flexor Carpi Radialis highlighted (image)

 
Biceps Brachii (image)

 
Abductor Pollicis Brevis (APB) Muscle Highlighted (image)

 
Extensor Indicis (image)

 
Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus (image)

 
First Dorsal Interosseous (image)

 
Triceps (image)

 
Abductor Digiti Minimi - Highlighted (image)

 
Abductor Digiti Minimi (image)

 
First Dorsal Interosseous Surface View (image)

 
Pronator Teres, Highlighted (image)

 
Pronator Teres (image)

 
Wallenberg Syndrome MRI with arrow (image)

 
Wallenberg Syndrome MRI (image)

 
Anatomical Landmarks Labeled (image)

 
Wallenberg Syndrome 1
53
 
Longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis, extending into caudal brainstem, mid sagittal section of brain with arrows (image)

 
Ependymal Pseudorosette with arrow (image)

 
fourth ventricular ependymoma, sagittal section through brainstem and cerebellum, labeled (image)

 
Basic Stains 01
416
 
For Comparison, Normal Neuropil (image)

 
Vanishing white matter disease, cerebral cortex and white matter, H&E stain x 40 with arrow (image)

 
For Comparison, normal neuropil (image)

 
For Comparison, Normal Neuropil (image)

 
Vanishing white matter disease, H&E stain, 200 X magnification, labeled (image)

 
Vanishing White matter disease, H&E stain, high power, Labeled (image)

 
Frontal Coronal, Labeled (image)

 
ATPase - Example of pathological findings (image)

 
Commonly used stains
In this section, we'll go over some of the more commonly used stains in neuropathology.  Different stains might be used in different tissues.  For example, the Gomorri trichrome stain is especially helpful in muscle to find certain types of myopathy. ...
 
Frontal Coronal, Labeled (image)

 
CD68 IHC - Example of pathological findings (image)

 
Structure of Skeletal Muscle - Schematic (image)

 
GFAP staining - Example of pathological findings (image)

 
Brainstem Glioma in Spinal Cord Transverse (image)

 
Glioblastoma multiforme involving cerebellum, H&E stain x 100, Labeled (image)

 
Glioblastoma multiforme, small cell variant, H&E stain x 200 with arrow (image)

 
GBM - MRI with contrast (image)

 
GBM - MRI with contrast sagittal (image)

 
Lobar pilocytic astrocytoma, H&E stain x40 with arrow (image)

 
For comparison, normal brain (image)

 
Krabbe disease, H&E stained section, high power with arrow (image)

 
Alexander disease, coronal section, close-up view, highlighted (image)

 
Intravascular lymphomatosis, CD20 immunohistochemical staining (image)

 
Rabies encephalitis, Negri bodies within the cytoplasm of cerebellar Purkinje cell neurons. (image)

 
Disorders of Ocular Motility 1
48
 
Active demyelinative plaque, periventricular region, H&E stain x 40 (image)

 
Active demyelinative plaque, periventricular region, H&E stain x 40 with arrow (image)

 
Multiple Sclerosis, ventral surface of brainstem, shaded (image)

 
Inactive demyelinated plaque, H&E stain section (image)

 
Cryptococcoma, mucicarmine staining, high power with arrow (image)

 
Methotrexate neurotoxicity, H&E stain section, high power with arrow (image)

 
Methotrexate neurotoxicity, H&E stained section x 100 with arrow (image)

 
Perivent Plaque CD68 IHC - Outlined (image)

 
Well-demarcated MS Plaque - Highlighted (image)

 
Rosetted Glioneuronal Tumor IVth Ventricle H&E with arrow (image)

 
Chiari Malformations 02
246
 
Meningiomas
In this section, there are dozens of images of meningiomas and their subtypes. There is also an excellent video, by Dr. Mark Cohen, providing an overview of meningiomas.  Enjoy!
 
Neurocutaneous Syndromes 07
344
 
Corpora Amylacea 400x (image)

 
Negri Body from CDC Rabies page (image)

 
Rabies - Negri Bodies H&E with arrow (image)

 
Rabies - Negri Bodies H&E (image)

 
Photomicrograph of H&E stained brain tissue from a rabies encephalitis patient. (image)

 
Normal Cerebellum for Comparison (image)

 
IVL cd20hp with arrow (image)

 
Adult Brain Tumor Pathology 01
347
 
Other non-immune stains
These stains are ones that you may come across during your rotation or during your reading, but are less frequently used than the ones discussed elsewhere.These are all tinctorial stains, not immune or histochemical stains.Click any of the images below for...
 
Normal Neuropil 01
346
 
Normal Neuropil for Comparison (image)

 
Normal Neuropil (image)

 
Toxicity and Characteristic Pathology 02
270
 
oligodendroglioma H&E with arrow (image)

 
Normal Neuropil for Comparison (image)

 
Pediatric Brain Tumor Pathology 01
237
 
<-- Click this thumbnail! See what happens! (video)

 
How to use the microscope
A brief and basic review on the use of the microscope.Many medical schools no longer require their students to learn how to use a microscope.  And yet, you may be in a pathology course where you are expected to look at microscope slides.  So here's a very...
 
Nemaline Myopathy
Like many of the congenital myopathies, the features of nemaline myopathy tend to be more severe course if the disease initially presents in infancy.  A more moderate expression of the disease is expected if it presents in childhood.  There is a wide clinical...
 
Central Core Disease
Like many of the congenital myopathies, the features of central core disease tend to be more severe course if the disease initially presents in infancy.  A more moderate expression of the disease is expected if it presents in childhood, and the disease relatively...
 
NADH stained skeletal muscle from a patient with CCD. (image)

 
Nemaline Myopathy Voiceover
3
 
<-- Click this thumbnail! See what happens! (video)

 
Sample Image with arrow (image)

 
Another test image with arrow (image)

 
Welcome to the Neuropathology course
Welcine to the neuropathology course!The pages, images, and multimedia files in this course should provide an ample introduction to neuropathology for a neurology resident. This course is designed to be adaptable to your style of learning, and how you approach the course is up to you...
 
True ependymal rosettes x400 with arrow (image)

 
Ependymomas
Ependymomas are classified as glial tumors, although they also have epithelial properties.   They are common, accounting for 3%-9% of all brain tumors.  They can occur at any age, but are somewhat more common in children.40% of ependymomas occur in the first decade of life...
 
Freidreich Ataxia Spinal Cord - Loss of Dorsal Columns (image)

 
Inclusion Body Myositis
Inclusion body myositis is an inflammatory myopathy. You can see rimmed vaucoles on trichrome, like in this imageNow I can type stuff here.   
 
Basal Ganglia Coronal Close - Insula (image)

 
Tub Agg Trichrome x400 with arrow (image)

 
Normal Coronal Cut Through the Thalamus (image)

 
hyaline inclusions trichrome x200 with arrow (image)

 
Tuberous Sclerosis SEGA and Nodules with arrow (image)

 
Normal Cerebellum (image)

 
Alcoholic Cerebellar Degeneration with arrow (image)

 
Inclusion Body Myositis H&E 200 with arrow (image)

 
Tub Agg Trichrome x400 with arrow (image)

 
Inclusion body myositis x400 with arrow (image)

 
Acute Wernicke Midbrain Transverse (image)

 
Amyloid Angiopathy Labeled (image)

 
Temporary Image (image)

 
Temporary Image (image)

 
Acute neuronal necrosis cerebellum 2 (image)

 
Neonatal Cerebellum
Neonatal cerebellum looks different from mature cerebellum. There is an external granule cell layer, which can be seen in these images as a rim of blue cells around the edge of the cerebellum.
 
Temporary Image (image)

 
Temporary Image (image)

 
Amyloid Angiopathy Labeled (image)

 
Another test image (image)

 
Sample Image (image)

 
Introduction to Neuropathology for Neurology Residents
Welcome to Introduction to Neuropathology for Neurology Residents.This course is designed to expose you to the basics of neuropathology.  We don't expect at the end of this course that you'll be able to diagnose neuropathologic zebras, or get a job as a neuropathologist...
 



Gallery Images



Sodium-Potassium ATPase

 
Cell Membrane Detailed Diagram L

 
Neuron with oligodendrocyte and

 
Cell Membrane Detailed Diagram L

 
Cell Membrane Detailed Diagram B

 
Inferior

 
Superior

 
MRI - Enhancing Meninges with ar

 
MRI ADC acute right MCA stroke

 
MRI w GAD - enhancing meninges

 
CT dense MCA highlighted

 
MRI DWI left ACA stroke

 
MRI DWI fluent aphasia

 
T2 MRI MCA ACA highlighted

 
MRI T2 MCA ACA normal

 
CTA Right M1 occlusion

 
CT dense MCA

 
Lobes of the cerebral hemisphere

 
Grey Matter vs White Matter

 
NMJ

 
Neuron soma

 
Sagittal Plane

 
Coronal Plane

 
Horizontal Plane

 
Mona Lisa - Left Horner

 
MRI Right MCA stroke DWI

 
MRI acute R MCA stroke

 
Neuron

 
Peripheral Nerve - Perineurium

 
Gray - Saphenous Nerve

 
Rhomboids highlighted.

 
Latissimis dorsi highlighted

 
This cartoon shows the infraspin

 
MSA Hot Cross Bun sign with arro

 
pronator quadratus highlighted

 
Flexor Pollicis Brevis with arro

 
Flexor digitorum profundus highl

 
Flexor Carpi Ulnaris highlighted

 
Tumefactive demyelination, H&E s

 
Oligodendrocyte

 
Extensor carpi radialis longus h

 
Type 1 prion cerebellar IHC

 
Flexor Digitorum Sublimis, Highl

 
Viral Encephalitis - MRI with ar

 
Cavitated MCA infarct, lateral s

 
MRI DWI - Acute Left PCA Infarct

 
Posterior cerebral artery infarc

 
Flexor Carpi Radialis highlighte

 
Flexor Carpi Radialis highlighte

 
Abductor Pollicis Brevis (A

 
Abductor Digiti Minimi - Highlig

 
First Dorsal Interosseous Surfac

 
Wallenberg Syndrome MRI with arr

 
Dorsolateral Medullary Infarct,

 
Wallenberg Syndrome MRI

 
Hand, Palmar

 
fourth ventricular ependymoma, s

 
Vanishing white matter disease,

 
Vanishing white matter disease,

 
Vanishing White matter disease,

 
Frontal Coronal, Labeled

 
Structure of Skeletal Muscle - S

 
Glioblastoma multiforme involvin

 
Glioblastoma multiforme, small c

 
GBM - MRI with contrast sagittal

 
GBM - MRI with contrast

 
Lobar pilocytic astrocytoma, H&E

 
Pelizaeus Merzbacher disease, Co

 
Krabbe disease, H&E stained sect

 
Alexander disease, coronal secti

 
Active demyelinative plaque, per

 
Multiple Sclerosis, ventral surf

 
Inactive demyelinated plaque, H&

 
Longitudinally extensive transve

 
Cryptococcoma, mucicarmine stain

 
Methotrexate neurotoxicity, H&E

 
Methotrexate neurotoxicity, H&E

 
Perivent Plaque CD68 IHC - Outli

 
Well-demarcated MS Plaque - High

 
Rosetted Glioneuronal Tumor IVth

 
Corpora Amylacea 400x

 
Negri Body from CDC Rabies page

 
Rabies - Negri Bodies H&E with a

 
Rabies - Negri Bodies H&E

 
Photomicrograph of H&E stained

 
Negri Bodies

 
IVL cd20hp with arrow

 
oligodendroglioma H&E with arrow

 
Normal Neuropil for Comparison

 
Optical Miscroscope Smaller

 
Optical Micsroscope

 
NADH stained skeletal muscle fro

 
Sample Image with arrow

 
Another test image with arrow

 
Ependymal Pseudorosette with arr

 
True ependymal rosettes x400 wit

 
Freidreich Ataxia Spinal Cord -

 
Basal Ganglia Coronal Close - In

 
hyaline inclusions trichrome x20

 
Tuberous Sclerosis SEGA and Nodu

 
Alcoholic Cerebellar Degeneratio

 
Inclusion body myositis x400 wit

 
Acute Wernicke Midbrain Transver

 
Acute neuronal necrosis cerebell

 
Amyloid Angiopathy Labeled

 
Note to gliageek 2

 
Note to gliageek 1

 
Pronator teres

 
Giant middle cerebral artery ane

 
Posterior communicating artery a

 
GBM 02

 
GBM 01

 
Grizzly Bear

 
3Hz Spike and wave 01

 
Stroke Right PCA

 
Septo-optic Dysplasia