The FrontalCortex question bank is free for everyone, everywhere.

Search Results:




Questions



Patellar Reflex

 
White Matter and Gray Matter 1

 
Parts of a Neuron 1

 
Brain Surface Anatomy 1

 
Anatomical Directions 1

 
Muscle Fiber Action Potential

 
Neuron Action Potential 2

 
Effect of Sodium Influx on a Neuron Membrane

 
Resting Potential of a Neuron 2

 
Resting Potential of a Neuron

 
Resting Potential of a Neuron
What is the approximate resting potential of a human neuron
 
Cranial Nerve Anatomy 02
Which of the following cranial nerves serves some motor function, but does not serve a sensory function
 
Cranial Nerve Anatomy 06
Which of the following cranial nerves serves some motor function
 
Cranial Nerve Anatomy 03
Which of the following cranial nerves serves some sensory function, but does not serve a motor function
 
Cranial Nerve Anatomy 04
Which of the following cranial nerves serves both motor and sensory functions
 
Cranial Nerve Anatomy 05
Which of the following cranial nerves serves some sensory function
 
Cranial Nerve Anatomy 01

 
NeurOnc10

 
Infections 13

 
Basic Neuropathology 9

 
Myelin 12

 
Inclusionology 04

 
Miosis 1

 
Basic Neuropathology 7

 
Basic Neuropathology 8

 
Infections 12

 
Infections 11

 
Basic Neuropathology 6

 
Myelin 11

 
Inclusionology 03

 
Infections 10

 
Hereditary Motor and Sensory Neuropathies 03

 
Peripheral Nerve Entraptments

 
Lateral Antebrachial Cutaneous Nerve

 
iPED Conference Question #3
Which of the following are most easily and effectively incorporated into face-to-face learning
 
iPED Conference Question #2
Who can use the resources on FrontalCortex.com
 
iPED Conference Question #1

 
Peripheral Nervous System and Neurologic Exam - Question 6
Absent reflexes are most characteristic of:
 
Peripheral Nervous System and Neurologic Exam - Question 5
Which of the following is most likely to be helpful in diagnosing a lesion within the peripheral nervous system
 
Peripheral Nervous System and Neurologic Exam - Question 4
A patient presents with weakness. Which of the following physical exam findings is suggestive of a lesion within the peripheral nervous system
 
Peripheral Nervous System and Neurologic Exam - Question 3
What is a myopathy
 
Peripheral Nervous System and Neurologic Exam - Question 2
Which of the following is not a disease process within the peripheral nervous system
 
Peripheral Nervous System and Neurologic Exam - Question 1
Which of the following is not considered part of the peripheral nervous system
 
Electromyography and Neuromuscular Disorders - Chapter 2 Quiz - Question 4
In this illustration of a neuron, what is the name of the structure indicated by the unnecessarily large green arrow
 
Electromyography and Neuromuscular Disorders - Chapter 2 Quiz - Question 3
Does an unmyelinated axon that is small in diameter conduct action potentials faster or slower than a large unmyelinated axon
 
Electromyography and Neuromuscular Disorders - Chapter 2 Quiz - Question 2
The ventral rami of spinal nerves C5, C6, C7, C8, and T1 come together to form what structure
 
Electromyography and Neuromuscular Disorders - Chapter 2 Quiz - Question 1
Which of the following is not considered part of the peripheral nervous system
 
Electromyography and Neuromuscular Disorders - Chapter 1 Quiz - Question 2
True or False: There are very few ways in which technical factors can adversely affect the accuracy of nerve conduction studies or EMGs.
 
Electromyography and Neuromuscular Disorders - Chapter 1 Quiz - Question 1
True or False: Every electrodiagnostic examination must be individualized based on the patient's symptoms and signs and the resulting differential diangosis.
 
Primitive Reflexes 2
Which of the following statements about the primitive reflex shown above is most accurate
 
Saphenous Nerve
Which of the following statements about the saphenous nerve is most accurate
 
Facial Findings 01
In the video above, I asked the gentleman shown to blink his eyes repeatedly. Based on the findings visible here, what is the most likely diagnosis
 
EMG Findings 01
In the needle EMG study shown in the video above, the finding of motor unit action potentials that are large, long, and polyphasic would be most consistent with which of the following
 
The SAH's Spasm!
A 43-year-old man is referred from another hospital to you for further management of cerebral vasospasm. He developed acute subarachnoid hemorrhage. All of the following statements regarding arterial vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are correct, except:
 
What can we do without Mr. Berry?
You intend to give a lecture to post-graduate neurology trainees about subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Which one of the following statements should your lecture NOT include
 
The SAH's therapy!
Your interns ask you about the optimal medical treatment of this 62-year-old man with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage. Your reply does NOT include which one of the following statements
 
The SAH's medical treatment!
You admit a 54-year-old man into the neurology ward after securing the diagnosis of acute subarachnoid hemorrhage. You start medical therapy for him. Regarding medical treatment of acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), which one is the wrong statement
 
The SAH's consequences!
While you manage a 61-year-old woman with acute subarachnoid bleed, she develops certain complications. With respect to complications and sequelae of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), which one is the wrong statement
 
The SAH's Work-Up!
You are taking care of a patient with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage. Regarding the investigations in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), which one is the wrong statement
 
The SAH's CSF!
You think of subarachnoid hemorrhage in this 49-year-old man but his initial brain CT scan is unremarkable. One of your interns suggests doing lumbar puncture, as the best next step. All of the following statements about CSF findings in subarachnoid hemorrhage are correct, except:
 
Blood around the brain!
You suspect non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage in this middle-aged woman because of sudden thunder-clap headache and drowsiness. You order brain imaging to solidify your initial impression. Regarding spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), which one is the wrong statement
 
The Sub-Spider Meninges
A 55-year-old woman is brought to the ER by her husband. The husband states that his wife had a sudden severe occipital headache which is then followed by clouded consciousness. You examine the patient thoroughly and you consider subarachnoid hemorrhage. ...
 
Subarachnoid Bleed!
A 45-year-old female has been referred to your ER as a suspected case of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Your interns ask you few questions about this type of hemorrhagic stroke. With regard to non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), which one is the wrong statement
 
Berrys's thing!
A 54-year-old man presents to the ER with sudden severe headache that is turned out to be due to acute subarachnoid hemorrhage. With respect to subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), which one is the wrong statement
 
Berry's Blood!
You attend a national symposium about subarachnoid hemorrhage and you have learned many things. Which one of the following you have NOT learned
 
The SAH's Surgery!
After properly stabilizing this 51-year-old woman with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage, you tell your interns to prepare her for surgical intervention. With respect to the surgical treatment of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to ruptured Berry's aneurysm, which one is the incorrect statement
 
The SAH's Outlook!
The older sister of this 49-year-old man who has acute subarachnoid hemorrhage asks you about the outlook her brother has. You explain to her the prognosis of this type of hemorrhagic stroke and she understands. Regarding the prognosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), choose the incorrect statement
 
Physiology Terms 01
Delayed relaxation of skeletal muscle after voluntary contraction, related to hyperexcitability of the muscle membrane is called:
 
Median sensory nerve conduction study normal values 01
You are performing a sensory nerve conduction test on an adult. You are testing the median nerve, recording at the 2nd finger. Of the following choices, which best defines the normal conduction velocity
 
Median motor nerve conduction study normal values 01
You are performing a motor nerve conduction test on an adult. You are testing the median nerve, recording at the abductor pollicis brevis muscle. Of the following choices, which best defines the normal amplitude value
 
Sensory distribution of the median nerve
Which of the following images best illustrates the sensory distribution of the median nerve
 
Pain in the forearm 06
A 25 year-old woman presents complaining of pain and tingling in her right arm. The pain is in her wrist, forearm, and elbow. The tingling is in her thumb and index finger. She says it's been going on for about 4 weeks, and getting worse. It frequently wakes her up at night...
 
Pain in the forearm 05
A 25 year-old woman presents complaining of pain and tingling in her right arm. The pain is in her wrist, forearm, and elbow. The tingling is in her thumb and index finger. She says it's been going on for about 4 weeks, and getting worse. It frequently wakes her up at night...
 
Pain in the forearm 04
A 25 year-old woman presents complaining of pain and tingling in her right arm. The pain is in her wrist, forearm, and elbow. The tingling is in her thumb and index finger. She says it's been going on for about 4 weeks, and getting worse. It frequently wakes her up at night...
 
Pain in the forearm 02
A 25 year-old woman presents complaining of pain and tingling in her right arm. The pain is in her wrist, forearm, and elbow. The tingling is in her thumb and index finger. She says it's been going on for about 4 weeks, and getting worse. It frequently wakes her up at night...
 
Pain in the forearm 01
A 25 year-old woman presents complaining of pain and tingling in her right arm. The pain is in her wrist, forearm, and elbow. The tingling is in her thumb and index finger. She says it's been going on for about 4 weeks, and getting worse. It frequently wakes her up at night...
 
Pain in the forearm 03
A 25 year-old woman presents complaining of pain and tingling in her right arm. The pain is in her wrist, forearm, and elbow. The tingling is in her thumb and index finger. She says it's been going on for about 4 weeks, and getting worse. It frequently wakes her up at night...
 
Myelin 10
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen This is an axial section of gross brain through the pons. The lesion shown in this image is associated with which of the following clinical scenarios
 
Basic Stains 01
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen The image above shows a slice of brain from a person who had encephalitis caused by Candida. The tissue is stained with periodic acid Schiff (PAS) stain. Which of the following does PAS stain for
 
Neuromuscular 10
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen What does this biopsy specimen show
 
Infections 05
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen The appearance of these cells is diagnostic of infection with which of the following viruses
 
Neuromuscular 04
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen These strongly NADH-TR positive structures may be seen in which of the following conditions
 
Neuromuscular 05
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen The histopathologic features seen within this trichrome stained muscle biopsy may be seen in all of the following conditions, EXCEPT:
 
Neurodegen 08
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen The abnormalities present in this coronal section are most consistent with which of the following diseases
 
Neuromuscular 09
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen Diseases characterized by these ultrastructural features on muscle biopsy may show all of the following, EXCEPT:
 
NeurOnc 07
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen The most common location for this tumor is:
 
Myelin 09
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen The best diagnosis for this lesion is
 
Neurodegen 06
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen This Huntington disease patient was most likely...
 
Neuromuscular 08
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen The concentric structures seen within this nerve biopsy indicate:
 
Neurodegen 09
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen These cytoplasmic inclusions would be expected to react with all of the following, EXCEPT:
 
Neurodegen 07
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen This tau negative, ubiquitin stained section of dentate gyrus suggests that, in addition to dementia, this patient may have manifest which of the following signs
 
Neurodegen 04
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen These anterior horn cells from this 63 year old who died with ALS contain which of the following proteins
 
Neurodegen 05
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen This transverse section of spinal cord came from a patient with
 
Neurodegen 03
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen In the most common genetic form of late-onset familial Parkinson disease (LRRK2 G1920s), these alpha-synuclein positive structures are seen first in which of the following locations
 
Neurocutaneous 09
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen This infant was born with a large cutaneous pigmented lesion, and these grayish macules in his meninges. Which of the following malformations is most likely to also be found in his brain
 
Neurocutaneous 08
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen This is the most common nervous system tumor in which of the following syndromes
 
Neurocutaneous 07
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen This tumor was removed from the cerebellum of a 26 year old woman. There is no family history of similar problems. The most cost effective next step in her evaluation would be
 
Neurocutaneous 06
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen This epileptogenic lesion may also be encountered as an asymptomatic finding in which of the following diseases
 
Neurocutaneous 05
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen This 4 year old boy, noted to have multiple skin lesions, may have a germline mutation in which of the following genes
 
Neurocutaneous 04
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen While removing this tumor from the spinal cord of a 8 year old boy, the surgeon reported encountering several gritty meningeal lesions, each less than a mm in diameter. The most likely diagnosis for this child is
 
Neurocutaneous Syndromes 07
The parents of the Infant Marguerite Therese (shown in the image above) have brought her to your clinic because she suffers from frequent seizures, which affect only the right side of her body. They are wondering if Marguerite Therese is likely to eventually pass this disorder on to her children...
 
Malformations 06
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen Chiari type
 
Neurocutaneous 03
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen All of the following may be seen in association with the histopathologic features pictures here, EXCEPT:
 
Malformations 09
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen This cyst on the surface of the ventral pons is remnant of which of the following
 
Malformations 07
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen The usual presentation of this malformation syndrome is
 
Malformations 05
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen This female infant was born with hydrocephalus, encephalocele, and retinal dysplasia. The best diagnosis is
 
Malformations 04
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen This abnormality may be associated with trisomy of which of the following chromosomes
 
Malformations 03
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen This boy suffered from infantile spasms and mental retardation. In addition to the defect pictured here, the brain showed cerebral heterotopias. The best diagnosis is
 
Myelin 08
Though not pathognomonic, this cell is characteristically seen in which of the following processes
 
Myelin 07
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen This form of leukoencephalopathy is most closely associated with which of the following agents
 
Myelin 06
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen Along with Canavan disease, this metabolic disorder may be distinguished clinically from other leukodystrophies based on which of the following features
 
Myelin 05
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen This 12 year old boy was normal until age 3, when he developed progressive ataxia and spasticity. MRI demonstrated diffuse cavitation of cerebral white matter with high signal intensity in cerebellar and brainstem white matter...
 
Myelin 04
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen This 42 year old male experienced sudden onset of fever, neck stiffness, and seizures. He became comatose and died 3 days later. The best diagnosis is:
 
Myelin 03
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen The large cells within the photograph result from:
 
NeurOnc 09
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen This sellar lesion most likely came from a/an:
 
NeurOnc 06
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen This specimen came from a patient with which of the following diseases
 
NeurOnc 05
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen This histologic appearance is consistent with all of the follAowing, EXCEPT
 
NeurOnc 04
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen The most common location for this tumor is:
 
Neuromuscular 07
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen This 4 year old boy with polymicrogyria showed mutation in which of the following proteins
 
Neuromuscular 06
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen This NADH-TR stained muscle shows features most consistent with:
 
Infections 08
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen The best diagnosis for this myelin stained section is
 
Infections 07
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen This organism is the most common cause of
 
Infections 06
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen This patient is likely to have engaged in which of the following activities
 
neurocutaneous 03
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen This tumor is most closely associated with which of the following syndromes
 
Infections 04
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen The most likely etiology for these lesions in this AIDS patient
 
Infections 09
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen Which of the following cell types is primarily infected in this viral infection
 
Motor Neuron Disorders 01
Which of the following statements is true about primary lateral sclerosis
 
Infections 03
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen Cerebral infection by this organism is most closely associated with which of the following conditions
 
NeurOnc 03
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen The most common location for this neoplasm is:
 
Myelin 02
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen In the absence of inflammation, this pattern on myelin loss is characteristic of which of the following
 
Myelin 01
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen The brown staining cells in this active demyelinating plaque are
 
Infections 02
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen Cowdry B inclusions, similar to those shown here, were initially felt to be diagnostic of which of the following
 
Neurodegen 02
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen This pattern of spinal cord damage is most consistent with which of the following diseases
 
Neurodegen 01
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen The pathologic abnormalities shown here are associated with which of the following mutations
 
Inclusionology 02
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen This intracytoplasmic inclusion may be seen in all of the following diseases, EXCEPT:
 
Malformations 02
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen This appearance may be seen in all of the following conditions, EXCEPT:
 
Malformations 01
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen Which of the following gene mutations is most closely associated with this neuronal migration disorder
 
Neuromuscular 03
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen This 42-year old former all-American quarterback comes in complaining of slowly progressive lower extremity weakness which began just after he got married 15 years ago. Which of the following diagnoses is most likely correct
 
Neuromuscular 02
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen Patients with this pattern of staining on NADH(TR) are at increased risk for:
 
Neuromuscular 01
Ultrastructurally, these cytoplasmic inclusions most closely resemble:
 
NeurOnc 02
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen This pattern of tumor spread is most characteristic of which of the following tumors
 
NeurOnc 01
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen All of the following statements regarding this tumor are true EXCEPT:
 
Gliomas 01
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen Which of the following molecular alterations is most commonly seen in this neoplasm
 
Inclusionology 01
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen Which of the following proteins is present in greatest abundance in this cytoplasmic inclusion
 
Neurocutaneous 02
Which of the following neurocutaneous syndromes is most closely associated with this neoplasm
 
Infections 01
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen Which of the following fungal organisms is most likely to result in this gross appearance
 
Neurocutaneous 01
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen Which of the following neurocutaneous syndromes is most closely associated with this neoplasm
 
Normal Neuropil 02
The image above shows a section of normal neuropil, prepared with an H&E stain. What are the structures circled in green
 
Adult Brain Tumor Pathology 01
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen A 50 year old woman presents with slowly worsening seizures over 9 months. Imaging of the head reveals a mass lesion. The lesion is surgically resected, and an H&E preparation of the tumor is shown in the image above.What kind of tumor is this
 
Normal Neuropil 01
The image above shows a section of normal neuropil, prepared with an H&E stain. What are the structures circled in blue
 
Upward Gaze
A 72 year old man presents with a month history of progressive difficulty in upward gaze and was found on exam mid-dilated mildly reactive pupils, and convergence-retraction nystagmus. Where is the lesion
 
Intraneuronal Inclusions 01
In the image above, note the structure indicated by the unnecessarily large green arrow. What substance is the primary constituent of this structure
 
Myasthenia Gravis 01
Can a medication cause myasthenia gravis in a patient who does not have myasthenia gravis
 
Malignant Hyperthermia and Myopathy 01
A patient with a congenital myopathy has developed malignant hyperthermia after anesthesia. Of the following choices, which type of congenital myopathy is most likely to be the one that this patient has
 
The Tricky Pills!
A 32-year-old woman visits the neurologist's office because of developing many seizures. She was diagnosed with primary generalized tonic-clonic fits, 10 years ago for which she takes lamotrigine tablets, 200 mg a day. She says that her fits were well-controlled,...
 
Lysosomal Storage Diseases 02
MPS I is also known as:
 
The Plaque Thing!
A 24-year-old woman has been diagnosed with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis 2 years ago, for which she takes interferon beta 1a injections. During the past year, she had 5 relapses, 3 of them had necessitated the use of steroid infusions. Examination...
 
Genes and Chromosomes 01
The gene that codes for Huntingtin is associated with Huntington disease. On which chromosome is this gene found
 
Wilson's!
A 6-year-old male has been referred to you for further evaluation of a possible Wilson's disease because of dystonic gait and limbs. History taking and thorough physical examination are carried out by you and you think that Wilson's disease is not the correct diagnosis in this child...
 
The Plaque, Again!
A 27-year-old woman is referred to you as a newly diagnosed case of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. However, after a thorough examination, you disagree with the referring physician. What have you found
 
Acanthocytes 02
A patient presents with steatorrhea, ataxia, and neuropathy. Acanthocytes are found on his blood smear. This is most consistent with which one of the following diagnoses
 
Upper extremity muscle function and innervation 04
During a needle EMG of the upper extremity, you notice a large number of fibrillations in the pronator teres muscle while the patient is at rest. From this, you deduce that the patient has a lesion. Of the following options, which lesion is most compatible with the EMG findings
 
Upper extremity muscle function and innervation 04
During a needle EMG of the upper extremity, you notice a large number of fibrillations in the pronator teres muscle while the patient is at rest. From this, you deduce that the patient has a lesion. Of the following options, which lesion is most compatible with the EMG findings
 
Acanthocytes 01
A patient presents with dystonia. Acanthocytes are found on her blood smear. This is most consistent with which one of the following diagnoses
 
Type I Muscle Fibers
Which of the following statements about type I muscle fibers is most accurate
 
Another Arnold!
A child has been referred to you as having Arnold-Chiari malformation type II. The presence of which one of the following would suggest type I, not type II malformation
 
Arnold!
You are discussing a case of Arnold-Chiari malformation in a 40-year-old man with your interns. One of them is asking about the possible defects that can affect the skull and dura in this patient. What would you tell him
 
Large Spaces!
You are reviewing the brain MRI of a 61-year-old man with vague personality changes and abnormal gait. You see dilated ventricular system and your intern thinks that this is compensatory to global brain atrophy. However, you have detected something that indicates...
 
A Silence!
You are doing an EMG for a 7-year-old male with progressive proximal weakness and waddling gait and greatly raised serum CPK. The EMG needle is inserted into the left calf, but no insertional activity is being recorded; what is the likely explanation of this observation
 
Cephalgia!
A 21-year-old woman presents with headache. Her headache is generalized, present most of the day and most of the year, and for the last 2 years. It is poorly responsive to indomethacine but responds well to amitriptyline. The cranials are intact, but you have...
 
The Fundus, Again!
A 41-year-old man has been referred by his GP as difficult-to-manage headache for the past 2 years. His GP says I’m concerned about his fundal appearance. Examination is totally unremarkable but his fundoscopy shows 2 left-sided whitish patches with black...
 
A Spurious Vision!
A 16-year-old high school boy is referred from the cardiology clinic. He says I have progressive drooping of my upper lids but I’m not bothered by this and I have no problems with doing my assignments, although my hearing is not that good. Examination shows...
 
I'm Weak, but Why?
A 32-year-old woman presents with painless fatigable weakness and bilateral partial ptoses. Her deep tendon reflexes are intact, as is her sensory system. She a refugee from Somalia and her English is very poor in spite of being in the States for the past 4 years...
 
Failed Vision!
A 27-year-old woman presents with progressive visual failure on the right side over a matter of 4 days. She was reasonably well and healthy and did not do drugs. Her bloods and urine are unremarkable. Examination reveals right-sided visual acuity of finger...
 
Disulfiram 01
What is the mechanism of action of disulfiram
 
Demyelinating Diseases 02
Which of the following genes is associated with an increased risk of developing multiple sclerosis
 
Autonomic Anatomy 03
Which one of the following locations contains cell bodies of sypmathetic preganglionic efferents
 
Autonomic Anatomy 02
As a result of a complete misunderstanding, a devil-worshipping blackbird stylist lesions your intermediolateral cell column bilaterally from C8 down to L2.After this, you suffer from loss of which of the following functions
 
Metallic Psychosis
A 17-year-old high school girl has been referred from the psychiatry department as a difficult-to-manage case of affective psychosis. She is on chlorpromazine for the past 3 months. Examination reveals resting tremor, rigidity, and dysarthria. Her work-up shows ALT 61 iu/L, total serum bilirubin 2...
 
Neuro-Medicine...
A 19-year-old man presents with bilateral resting tremor. He has blue lunulae and sun-flower cataract. Which one of the following is not an expected finding in this man
 
A Fit with Difficult Choice!
A 12-year-old male has been recently diagnosed with idiopathic grand mal epilepsy and his neurologist is about to prescribe an anti-epileptic for him. He is healthy-looking, with a BMI of 35 Kg/m2, normotensive, and has a normal mentation. He denies doing drugs and his family history is unremarkable...
 
Again, the Pills!
A 32-year-old woman visits the neurologist's office because of having many seizures during the past week. She takes daily lamotrigine 300 mg for the last 3 years for idiopathic grand mal epilepsy. She says that she was seizure-free. She is compliant with her medication and denies doing drugs...
 
A Non-Alcoholic Veering!
A 16-year-old male has been referred to the neurology outpatient clinic because of recurrent loss of consciousness. He has reeling gait, lost ankles, and up-planters with pes cavus. His speech is dysarthric. Which one of the following is consistent with the diagnosis of Friedreich's ataxia
 
Loss of the Blanket!
You are investigating a young female with a suspected multiple sclerosis (MS), and CSF analysis is one of your lab tests. Your intern suggests looking for an elevated level of CSF myelin basic protein (MBP). How would you respond to him
 
An Oligo...!
You are discussing the implications of CSF oligoclonal bands in various disease states and your colleague is referring to a disease that results in almost 100% detection of CSF oligoclonal bands. Which disease does your colleague mean
 
Running Out of Protein!
After performing a lumbar puncture for an inpatient, the lab calls you to tell you that the protein content of the CSF sample is 13 mg/dl. Your intern is astonished and asks why All, but one, of the following can result in this CSF protein value
 
Out of Pressure!
A 32-year-old man presents with headache. His brain CT scan is normal-looking but his lumbar puncture reveals opening pressure of 3 cm H2O. Which one of the following can not be a cause of this man's abnormal opening pressure
 
Self-Mutilation 01
Of the following choices, which one disorder is not associated with self-mutilation
 
Ascending Weakness 01
A 19 year-old, previously healthy police officer presents with a 4 day history of worsening ascending weakness, which began shortly after he started complaining of severe abdominal pain. On exam, he is delirious. The cranial nerves appear intact. He has diffuse, symmetric weakness...
 
A Flaccid Body!
A 21-year-old college student is brought to the ER short of breath 2 days after having difficulty walking which started 4 days ago. The patient is dyspneic but fully conscious.Examination reveals flaccid areflexic quadriparesis of grade 2, proximal and distal, with normal sensation...
 
Release my hand, please!
A 26-year-old man visits the physician's office with excessive day time sleepiness. His face is long, thin, and has bilateral ptoses without frontalis overaction but there no is ocular weakness. He is wearing a wig. Which one of the following is inconsistent with the diagnosis of myotonia dystrophica
 
Shake your hand at rest!
A middle-aged woman visits the movement disorder clinic because of hand instability. You have detected tremor but you are not sure whether this is due to Parkinson's disease or due to essential tremor. Which one of the following is suggestive of Parkinson's disease
 
A Metallic Brain!
A 19-year-old male presents with shaky hands. He has bilateral resting tremor with intentional component as well as dysarthria. His urine is positive for sugar but his random blood sugar never exceeds 100 mg/dl. What is the likely diagnosis this man has
 
A Ball in the Brain!
A 57-year-old woman presents with vague personality changes. Her neurological examination is non-focal but her brain MRI is suggestive of a frontal lobe meningioma, semirounded, and is 3 by 4 cm in maximum diameter. The report adds with underlying brain edema...
 
A Palpable Cord!
Your internal medicine colleague has referred a case of peripheral neuropathy to you. His referral states that there are some palpable nerves. Which one of the following is not on your differential diagnosis list
 
A Hidden Bomb!
A 56-year-old woman is brought to the ER drowsy. Her husband says that the patient developed sudden severe occipital headache which is followed by this drowsiness. Non-contrast brain CT scan reveals blood in the basal cisterns. Next day, her conventional 4-vessel...
 
A Stroke on the Head!
A 65-year-old man with long-standing hypertension and type II diabetes presents with left arm pyramidal weakness of grade 4 minus over the past 2 hours. Examination does not uncover any language or sensory problems. His non-contrast brain CT scan is unremarkable...
 
Special Muscle Receptors 01
A 79 year-old houseplant canner presents to your clinic for evaluation of anxiety. During your exam, you bang on his knee with a hammer. Which of the following statements most accurately describes the afferent limb of the reflex arc you are trying to elicit
 
GABA 01
From which of the following is GABA synthesized
 
Epinephrine 01
From which of the following is epinephrine synthesized
 
Norepinephrine 01
From which of the following is norepinephrine synthesized
 
Dopamine 01
From which of the following is dopamine synthesized
 
Serotonin 01
From which of the following is serotonin synthesized
 
Cholinergic and Anticholinergic agents 01
Because someone told him to do it, a 32 year-old fisherman ingested insanely huge quantities of scopolomine. Which of the following findings will he not have as a result of taking this drug
 
Bad Seafood 01
A 27 year-old attorney is in excellent health, until he pops into a local seafood restaurant and eats truckloads of seafood. Then he develops an acute neuropathy. Which of the following substances is most likely responsible for in this man's illness
 
Refsum Disease 01
Which of the following statements about Refsum disease is most accurate
 
Agents that Affect Cholinergic Synapses - Super Quiz 01
Which of the following statements is most accurate
 
Hormones and Neurotransmitters and Stuff 02
Which of the following substances is considered a catecholamine neurotransmitter
 
Optic Pathway Gliomas 01
Regarding the tumor seen in this image, which of the following statements is most accurate
 
Diffuse (Fibrillary) Astrocytomas 01
Which of the following statements about diffuse (fibrillary) astrocytomas is most accurate
 
GQ1B Antibodies
The presence of GQ1B antibodies is associated with which of the following
 
Friedreich Ataxia 01
Which of the following statements about Friedreich Ataxia is most accurate
 
Treatment of Guillain-Barre Syndrome 01
A patient presents with a 3 day history of worsening symmetric weakness. He states that the weakness began in the lower extremities, and now involves the upper extremities as well. Exam is normal except for notably decreased strength throughout, and absent reflexes...
 
Brain Anatomy 02
The arcuate fasciculus connects which of the following areas
 
Skull Foramina 01
CN V-2 passes through which one of the following structures
 
Lysosomal Storage Diseases 01
There is a deficiency in the expression or activity of a-d glucosidase in which of the following disorders
 
Fabry Disease 01
Which of the following statements about Fabry disease is most accurate
 
Skull Foramina 02
The cribiform plate contains which of the following nerves
 
Copy of Genetics of ALS 01
Regarding amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), roughly what percentage of cases are familial
 
Copy of Bulbar Signs and Symptoms 01
A patient presents with dysphagia and dysarthria. The tongue shows atrophy and fasciculations. Sensation and gag are intact. The jaw-jerk reflex is very brisk. Of the following, which is the best description of these findings
 
Bulbar Signs and Symptoms 01
A patient presents with dysphagia and dysarthria. The tongue shows atrophy and fasciculations. Sensation and gag are intact. The jaw-jerk reflex is very brisk. Of the following, which is the best description of these findings
 
Genetics of ALS 01
Regarding amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), roughly what percentage of cases are familial
 
Dysphagia as a presenting symptom 01
An adolescent presents with complaints of dysphagia and dysarthria. The patient's father uncle reportedly has a history of muscle weakness that began similarly. On exam, there is wasting of the tongue, with fasciculations. The remainder of the exam is normal...
 
Spinal Muscular Atrophy Eponyms
Which of the following statements is accurate
 
Werdnig-Hoffman Disease
Which of the following statements about Werdnig-Hoffman disease is most accurate
 
Brain anatomy 01
In the section of gross brain shown above, what is the name of the structure indicated by the unnecessarily large green arrow
 
Intracerebral white matter tracts 02
Whoa, dude! What is that structure
 
Cerebrovascular Anatomy 09
Which of the following structures does the anterior choroidal artery supply
 
Toxicity and Characteristic Pathology 02
Courtesy of Dr. Mark Cohen A 25 year old woman in previously good health is found at home, comatose and with bright red skin.  After a few days in the ICU, the patient expires.  An autopsy is performed. The brain is shown in the image above. What was the cause of death
 
Neurologic Sequellae of Nutritional Deficiencies 03
A 48 year-old man presents with worsening confusion, ataxia, nystagmus, and ophthalmoparesis. An MRI of his brain is obtained, and is shown above.Appropriate treatment requires IV administration of which of following
 
Lower extremity muscle function and innervation 07
Which of the following nerves is involved in bringing innervation to the peroneus brevis
 
A patient with cognitive and movement complaints 02
A 44 year-old male presents to your office accompanied by a family member, who helps provide the history. The patient has had a 2 year history of worsening neurologic and psychiatric issues, including memory problems and odd movements and uncharacteristic aggressive behavior...
 
Lower extremity muscle function and innervation 08
Which of the following muscles is innervated by peroneal fibers in the sciatic nerve
 
Lower extremity muscle function and innervation 06
The anterior divisions of the anterior rami of the L2-L3-L4 roots join to form which of the following nerves
 
Lower extremity muscle function and innervation 05
The posterior divisions of the anterior rami of the L2-L3-L4 roots join to form which of the following nerves
 
Tomaculae
Tomaculae are characteristic of which of the following disorders
 
Roots of the brachial plexus and the muscles they innervate 01
Which of the following roots provide innervation to the flexor digitorum profundus to digit 2
 
Nerves arising from the brachial plexus and the muscles they innervate 01
The deltoid is innervated by which of the following nerves
 
Cords of the brachial plexus and the muscles they innervate 01
The extensor carpi ulnaris muscle is innervated by which of the following cords of the brachial plexus
 
Trunks of the brachial plexus and the muscles they innervate 01
The extensor pollicis longus muscle is innervated by which of the following trunks of the brachial plexus
 
Upper extremity muscle function and innervation 03
During a needle EMG of the upper extremity, you notice a large number of fibrillations in the first dorsal interosseous muscle while the patient is at rest. From this, you deduce that the patient has a lesion. Of the following options, which lesion is most compatible with the EMG findings
 
Upper extremity muscle function and innervation 03
During a needle EMG of the upper extremity, you notice a large number of fibrillations in the first dorsal interosseous muscle while the patient is at rest. From this, you deduce that the patient has a lesion. Of the following options, which lesion is most compatible with the EMG findings
 
Upper extremity muscle function and innervation 02
During a needle EMG, you notice a large number of fibrillations in the abductor pollicis brevis muscle while the patient is at rest. From this, you deduce that the patient has a lesion. Of the following options, which lesion is most compatible with the EMG findings
 
Upper extremity muscle function and innervation 02
During a needle EMG, you notice a large number of fibrillations in the abductor pollicis brevis muscle while the patient is at rest. From this, you deduce that the patient has a lesion. Of the following options, which lesion is most compatible with the EMG findings
 
Upper extremity muscle function and innervation 01
Of the following choices, which muscle receives the most proximal innervation from the median nerve
 
Upper extremity muscle function and innervation 01
Of the following choices, which muscle receives the most proximal innervation from the median nerve
 
Stroke Etiology 02
What percentage of strokes are considered cryptogenic
 
paroxysmal spells 01
A 28 man in otherwise good health is standing, speaking with his girlfriend. In response to a humorous statement, he begins laughing hysterically. Suddenly, he collapses to the ground. He remains awake and alert, but is very weak for several seconds. The most accurate term for this phenomenon is:
 
Stroke etiology 01
Which of the following statements about stroke etiology is most accurate
 
Headache 01
A 39 year-old female presents to your office complaining of a 4 month history of persistent headache. She states the pain is always present but having a variable severity, sometimes barely noticeable and at other times moderate. When the pain is at its worst, she experiences miosis and sweating...
 
Chiari Malformations 03
An adult patient presents to your clinic. Because of symptoms he describes, you obtain the MRI shown above. Which of the following symptoms were most likely among this patient's complaints
 
Chiari Malformations 02
Which one answer below most correctly describes what is seen in the image above
 
Autonomic Anatomy 01
Which of the following cranial nerves carry parasympathetic fibers
 
Migraine Without Aura Diagnostic Criteria
Which of the following is NOT one of the diagnostic criteria for Migraine without Aura according to the International Classification of headache Disorders, Second Edition
 
Pathogens in Bacterial Meningitis
A 25 year-old immunocompetent female presents with bacterial meningitis. Of the following options, which is the most likely pathogen
 
Pediatric Epilepsy Syndromes 11
A 9 year-old girl presents to your office accompanied by her parents. The parents state that on 3 occasions over the past several months, the girl has come into their room in the early morning, drooling and having difficulty talking, with a slight facial droop...
 
Pediatric Epilepsy Syndromes 10
A 6 year-old girl presents to your office accompanied by her parents. The parents state that on 4 occasions over the past several months, the girl has come into their room in the early morning, drooling and having difficulty talking, with a slight facial droop...
 
Pediatric Epilepsy Syndromes 09
An 8 year-old girl presents to your office accompanied by her parents. The parents state that on 2 occasions over the past several months, the girl has come into their room in the early morning, drooling and having difficulty talking, with a slight facial droop...
 
Sjogren-Larsson Syndrome 01
Which of the following statements about Sjögren-Larsson syndrome are true
 
Copy of Sjogren-Larsson Syndrome 01
Which of the following statements about Sjögren-Larsson syndrome are true
 
Pediatric Brain Tumor Pathology 01
A developmentally delayed 4 year-old male presents with several months of worsening seizures and headaches. A head CT reveals a large mass with areas of calcification. The mass is removed surgically. The image above shows an H&E stain of a section taken from the mass...
 
Hereditary Motor and Sensory Neuropathies 02
You examine a child with diminished ankle reflexes, pes cavus, scoliosis, wasting of the calf muscles, and weakness. On nerve conduction study, you find severe slowing of the conduction velocity. Several of the patient's relatives have had similar symptoms,...
 
Neuroanatomic correlates of stroke-related myocardial injury
Myocardial infarction after a stroke, occurring without any apparent primary cardiac cause:
 
Intracerebral white matter tracts 01
The ansa lenticularis:
 
Neuroblastoma 01
A 2 year-old boy presents with worsening fever, irritability, and weight loss. There is a palpable abdominal mass on exam. Imaging shows a large mass arising from the adrenal gland. Which of the following paraneoplastic disorders is most classically associated with this type of tumor
 
Chiari Malformations 01
Which one of the following statements about Chiari malformations is most accurate
 
Brown-SĂ©quard Syndrome 02
For unclear reasons, a maniacal grizzly bear impersonator accidentally cuts through the entire right half of your spinal cord at the T3 level. You will now have which of the following deficits below the level of the lesion
 
Brown-SĂ©quard Syndrome 01
For unclear reasons, a deranged surgeon skillfully lesions through the entire left half of your spinal cord at the T4 level. You will now have which of the following deficits below the level of the lesion
 
Posterior Interosseous Nerve 01
Which of the following statements about the posterior interosseous nerve is most accurate
 
Anterior Interosseous Nerve 01
Which of the following statements about the anterior interosseous nerve is most accurate
 
Cortex Lesions 01
A deranged mad scientist hacks out portions of your right cerebral cortex, specifically, your posterior superior temporal sulcus and dorsolateral Frontal Cortex. You will now have which of the following deficits
 
Cranial Nerves 01
Which of the following nerves emerges as a branch off of CN VII at the geniculate ganglion
 
Sensory innervation of the upper extremity 04
During a neurologic exam, you apply pressure to a patient's 5th finger, and he tells you that he is able to feel it normally. In general, this suggests that which of the following peripheral structures are intact
 
Sensory innervation of the upper extremity 03
During a neurologic exam, you apply pressure to a patient's middle finger, and he tells you that he is able to feel it normally. In general, this suggests that which of the following peripheral structures are intact
 
Sensory innervation of the upper extremity 02
During a neurologic exam, you apply pressure to a patient's thumb nail bed, and he tells you that he is able to feel it normally. In general, this suggests that which of the following peripheral structures are intact
 
Cranial Neuropathies 01
Which of the following is the most common cause of unilateral cranial nerve XII palsy
 
Entrapment Neuropathies 02
A 71 year-old man presents with numbness and tingling of the 4th and 5th fingers of the right hand, and some weakness of the same hand. The symptoms have been growing slowly worse over the past few months. On exam, there is loss of sensation in these fingers, and on the medial aspect of the hand...
 
Entrapment Neuropathies 01
What is the most common entrapment neuropathy
 
Hypertensive hemorrhage
Where are hypertensive cerebral hemorrhages most likely to occur
 
Hemorrhage after IV tPA for Acute Stroke
A 56 year-old man has the sudden onset of facial droop, left gaze deviation, right-sided weakness, and global aphasia. This is witnessed by his mistress, who accompanies him to the emergency department, where he arrives less than 20 minutes after the onset of symptoms...
 
Paraneoplastic Syndromes 02
Several antibodies are associated with paraneoplastic syndromes, and with characteristic neoplasms. Which of the following antibodies is not typically associated with small cell lung cancer (SCLC)
 
Paraneoplastic Syndromes 01
Of the following antibodies, which is most commonly associated with paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis
 
A patient with cognitive and movement complaints 01
A 42 year-old female presents to your office accompanied by a family member, who helps provide the history. The patient has had a 2 year history of worsening psychiatric and neurologic issues, including memory problems and odd movements and uncharacteristic apathy...
 
Antidepressant side effects 01
A patient you see in clinic is suffering from major depression. You start him on an antidepressant. A week later, you receive a panic-stricken phone call from him. He complains that he has a painful erection that has persisted for the last 24 hours. Of...
 
Interactions of AEDs 01
You have a patient with epilepsy. He is already on one antiepileptic agent, and you are about to add lamotrigine. Which of the following statements about the interactions of lamotrigine and other medications are true
 
Lamotrigine rash
You are starting a patient on lamotrigine for seizures. While you are discussing side effects, she states that she has heard that a serious rash is a common side effect of this drug, and asks you about it. Which of the following statements would be most appropriate to tell her
 
Neuromuscular Disorders 01
The Gomori trichrome stained muscle biopsy shown above is most consistent with which of the following disorders
 
Muscle Fiber Histology 02
This photomicrograph shows a cytochrome C oxidase stain of skeletal muscle. In normal muscle, which of the following statements is true about the fibers that stain DARKER with cytochrome C oxidase
 
Muscle Fiber Histology 01
This photomicrograph shows a cytochrome C oxidase stain of skeletal muscle. In this type of stain:
 
Adverse effects of AEDs 13
Which of the following is a hallmark side effect of zonisamide
 
Adverse effects of AEDs 11
Which of the following is a hallmark side effect of tiagabine
 
Adverse effects of AEDs 12
Which of the following is a hallmark side effect of vigabatrin
 
Adverse effects of AEDs 10
Which of the following is a hallmark side effect of topiramate
 
Adverse effects of AEDs 08
Which of the following is a hallmark side effect of felbamate
 
Adverse effects of AEDs 09
Which of the following is a hallmark side effect of gabapentin
 
Adverse effects of AEDs 05
Which of the following is a hallmark side effect of oxcarbazepine
 
Adverse effects of AEDs 06
Which of the following is a hallmark side effect of benzodiazepines
 
Adverse effects of AEDs 07
Which of the following is a hallmark side effect of valproate
 
Adverse effects of AEDs 02
Which of the following is a hallmark side effect of barbiturates
 
Adverse effects of AEDs 03
Which of the following is a hallmark side effect of ethosuximide
 
Adverse effects of AEDs 04
Which of the following is a hallmark side effect of carbamazepine
 
Adverse effects of AEDs 01
Which of the following is a hallmark side effect of phenytoin
 
Adverse effects of AEDs 14
Which of the following is a hallmark side effect of zonisamide
 
Neurooncology 02
A 59 year-old man presents to the emergency department with new onset of seizures. MRI is suggestive of a mass lesion. A biopsy is performed, and a photomicrograph of the tissue obtained is shown above. Of the following, which is the most likely diagnosis
 
Basic Neuropathology 05
This is a photomicrograph of a brain biopsy stained with H&E. What is the abnormal finding in this slide
 
Basic Neuropathology 04
This is a photomicrograph of a brain biopsy stained with H&E. What are the abnormal structures shown in this slide called
 
Leukodystrophies 01
During the workup of a child with a developmental delay, you obtain the above MRI. This image is most consistent with which of the following diagnoses
 
Pathology of primary CNS angiitis
Which of the following pathological findings is most characteristic of primary angiitis of the CNS
 
Pathology of giant cell arteritis
Which of the following pathological findings is most characteristic of giant cell arteritis
 
Pathology of polyarteritis nodosa
Which of the following pathological findings is most characteristic of polyarteritis nodosa
 
Pathology of CADASIL
Which of the following pathological findings is most characteristic of CADASIL
 
Vascular Malformations 05
Which of the following statements about the type of lesion seen in this photomicrograph is most accurate
 
Vascular Malformations 06
Which of the following statements about the type of lesion seen in this photomicrograph is most accurate
 
Myopathies 04
The image above shows an electron micrograph of a skeletal muscle biopsy. Which of the following statements about this condition is most accurate
 
Inborn Errors of Metabolism 04
A 6 month old child is admitted to the hospital with sepsis. The pediatric resident notices a seizure, and calls a neurology consult. The patient's father states that the patient's birth was normal except for hypothermia. Over the ensuing months,...
 
Toxicity and Characteristic Pathology 01
A 23 year old man in previously good health is found at home, comatose and with bright red skin.  After a few days in the ICU, the patient expires.  Carbon monoxide poisoning is the suspected cause of death. On autopsy, what findings in the brain can you expect to see 
 
Vascular Malformations 04
Which of the following statements about the type of lesion seen in this photomicrograph is most accurate
 
Subarachnoid Hemorrhage 02
Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons A 30 year old male is found down and brought by paramedics to the emergency departement. GCS is 7, and the patient is intubated for airway protection. The patient withdraws all extremities to painful stimuli. A stat head CT reveals the above abnormalities...
 
Subarachnoid Hemorrhage 01
Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons A 55 year old female is found down and brought by paramedics to the emergency departement. GCS is 7, and the patient is intubated for airway protection. The patient withdraws all extremities to painful stimuli. A stat head CT reveals the above abnormalities...
 
Basic Neuropathology 03
Loss of the cells shown in this image is associated with which of the following exam findings
 
Basic Neuropathology 02
Which of the following statements is most accurate regarding the space indicated by the unnecessarily large red arrow in the image above
 
Cerebral Ischemia 01
In cases of mild hypoxic injury, which of the following cells are most likely to be damaged
 
Development of the Nervous System 02
Gyration of the brain continues until approximately which gestational week
 
CSF 01
In an adult, how much CSF does the choroid plexus produce daily
 
Basic Neuropathology 01
What are Creutzfeldt cells
 
Cerebellar Microanatomy 03
An infarction which damages cells of the type indicated by the unnecessarily large red arrow will result in which of the following reactions
 
Cerebellar Microanatomy 02
What kind of cell is indicated by the unnecessarily large red arrow in the picture above
 
Cerebellar Microanatomy 01
What the heck are we looking at here
 
Reactive Astrocytosis 01
Which of the following occur in reactive astrocytosis
 
Alzheimer type II cells 01
Alzheimer type II cells are most closely associated with which of the following conditions
 
Antiepileptic Medications 06
A patient with epilepsy is started on a new antiepileptic agent.  On a follow-up visit, he is found to be hyponatremic.  This side effect is most commonly associated with which of the following medications
 
CSF and Seizures
A 35 year old male presents is brought to the ED after a generalized tonic-clonic seizure. The seizure occurred about 2 hours ago. He remains lethargic and confused. Physical exam reveals an afebrile, healthy-appearing male with no focal neurologic findings...
 
Cerebrovascular Disease 02
A 45 year old male presents with a sudden onset of left upper extremity weakness and numbness. Past medical hisotry is significant for migraines. His exam reveals only the above described weakness. His father and paternal grandmother also had migraines...
 
EEG Frequency Band Definitions
An EEG waveform with a frequency of 6 Hz would fit into which frequency band
 
Cerebrovascular Anatomy 04
In the gadolinium bolus MRA shown above, what is the structure indicated by the great big arrow
 
EEG electrode nomenclature
Using the nomenclature of the 10-10 system, what is the name of the EEG electrode highlighted in red in this illustration
 
Neurooncology Most Commons 01
Which of the following is the most common pediatric central nervous system glial neoplasm
 
Neurooncology 01
Which of the following statements about intracranial tumors is most accurate
 
Ceroid Lipofuscinoses 02
A child presents to your clinic with a history of cognitive and/or motor regression, epilepsy, and progressive blindness.  Skin biopsy shows intracellular accumulations of material that autofluoresces with a yellow-green color.What is the inheritance pattern of this disorder
 
Ceroid Lipofuscinoses 01
What are the cardinal features of ceroid lipofuscinosis
 
Visual Evoked Potentials 01
Which of the following statements regarding visual evoked potentials (VEPs) are true
 
Hypothalamic Functions 01
Which of the following areas is associated with regulation of sleep and secretion of  hypocretin
 
Hormones and Neurotransmitters and Stuff 01
Administration of orexin results in which of the following
 
Narcolepsy 01
Narcolepsy is associated with a deficiency of which of the following substances
 
Cerebrovascular Anatomy 08
In the angiogram shown above, what is the structure indicated by the great big red arrow
 
Development of the Nervous System 01
When does the neural tube begin to form, and when does it close
 
Fungal CNS Infections 02
A 35 year-old male billionaire playboy is brought into Gotham City emergency room by his butler and his young male live-in companion. The patient is stuporous and vomiting. The butler explains that the patient has had a several week history of slowly progressive...
 
Fungal CNS Infections 01
Which of the following fungi is commonly seen primarily in the Ohio and Mississippi basins
 
Cerebrovascular Anatomy 07
In the angiogram shown above, what is the structure indicated by the really big red arrow
 
Cerebrovascular Anatomy 06
In the gadolinium bolus MRA shown above, what is the structure indicated by the unnecessarily large pointy red indicator thingy
 
Cerebrovascular Anatomy 05
In the fluoroscopic study shown above, what is the structure indicated by the unnecessarily large red arrow
 
Cerebrovascular Anatomy 03
Which of the following images shows the sigmoid sinus
 
Cerebrovascular Anatomy 02
An occlusion of the indicated vessel would result in which of the following deficits
 
EEG Patterns 03
This is an eeg from a 6 year-old girl who has a history of staring spells.  The patient is hyperventilating during this portion of the recording.  Based on this one page, which of the following statements about this EEG is most accurate
 
Circadian Rhythm
The circadian rhythm is controlled primarily by which of the following structures
 
Pediatric Epilepsy Syndromes 08
A 13 year old girl presents after having a generalized tonic-clonic seizure.  She has noticed that, when she brushes her teeth or combs her hair in the morning, she occasionally experiences a brief, involuntary jerk in her upper extremities.  Past medical history is otherwise unremarkable...
 
Pediatric Epilepsy Syndromes 07
A 16 year old girl presents after having a generalized tonic-clonic seizure.  She has noticed that, when she brushes her teeth or combs her hair in the morning, she occasionally experiences a brief, involuntary jerk in her upper extremities.  Past medical history is otherwise unremarkable...
 
Pediatric Epilepsy Syndromes 05
A 9 year old girl presents to your office accompanied by her parents. The parents state that she has been having frequent staring spells. Past medical history is otherwise unremarkable. There is no family history of seizures. Exam is normal. You obtain an...
 
Pediatric Epilepsy Syndromes 06
A 6 year old girl presents to your office.  The parents state that the child has been having frequent staring spells. Past medical history is otherwise unremarkable. There is no family history of seizures. Exam is normal. You obtain an EEG, which shows the...
 
Pediatric Epilepsy Syndromes 04
An 8 year old girl presents to your office accompanied by her parents.  The parents state that on 2 occasions over the last several months, the girl has come into their room in the early morning, drooling and having difficulty talking, with a slight droop on the right side of her face...
 
Pediatric Epilepsy Syndromes 03
An 8 year old girl presents to your office accompanied by her parents.  The parents state that on 2 occasions over the last several months, the girl has come into their room in the early morning, drooling and having difficulty talking, with a slight droop on the right side of her face...
 
Pediatric Epilepsy Syndromes 02
What is the most common form of focal epilepsy in children
 
Myopathies 03
What is the most common type of myopathy with onset after 50 years of age
 
Myopathies 02
What is the most common type of myopathy diagnosed in adults
 
Antiepileptic Medications 03
Which of the following antiepileptic medications is effective in the treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, but is associated with a relatively high risk for hepatotoxicity and aplastic anemia
 
Antiepileptic Medications 05
A 3 year-old boy presents to your clinic for evaluation.  He is developmentally delayed, and has had seizures for the past 2 years.  Seizure types include generalized tonic-clinic, atonic, tonic, and absence.  EEG shows 2 1/2 Hz spike and wave complexes while...
 
Demyelinating Diseases 01
A 32 year-old female presents to your clinic for follow up after a recent hospitalization.  She had been hospitalized for rapidly worsening bilateral lower extremity weakness and numbness.  There had no history of trauma or recent illness.  She reports that...
 
Antiepileptic Medications 04
Autoinduction is a significant issue for which of the following antiepileptic medications
 
Antiepileptic Medications 02
Carbemazepine is indicated as monotherapy for which of the following seizure types
 
Inborn Errors of Metabolism 03
A 15 year-old female presents with complaints of weakness and progressive difficulties with walking. Physical exam reveals hypotonia and absent patellar and achilles reflexes. An MRI is obtained, and is shown above.Of the following, which is the most likely diagnosis
 
Mitochondrial Diseases 01
What does the acronym NARP stand for
 
Pseudotumor Cerebri 02
A 30 year old, right-handed obese female presents with several weeks of worsening headache and blurred vision. Papilledema is seen on funduscopic exam. Imaging of the brain, including an MRV, shows no abnormalities.Which of the following medications that she takes is the most likely cause of her disease
 
Neurologic Sequellae of Nutritional Deficiencies 02
The pathologic findings in this MRI are most likely related to a disease state resulting from a deficit of which nutrient
 
Neurologic Sequellae of Nutritional Deficiencies 01
This MRI most likely comes from a patient with which of the following findings
 
Stroke Syndromes Imaging 01
One day after after the onset of this patient's stroke symptoms, the above FLAIR MRI image was taken. Of the following choices, which syndrome is most likely to be found in this patient
 
the scent of urine
Which of the following statements regarding the scent of urine is FALSE
 
Neurocutaneous Syndromes 06
This MRI is most consistent with which of the following diagnoses
 
Neurocutaneous Syndromes 05
This MRI is most consistent with which of the following diagnoses
 
Neurocutaneous Syndromes 04
The parents of the Infant Marguerite Therese (shown in the image above) are concerned because she has recently developed seizures. Of the following options, which is the most likely diagnosis
 
Inborn Errors of Metabolism 02
Which of the following disorders is associated with cataracts
 
Inborn Errors of Metabolism 01
The nurse taking care of a newborn is changing the infant's diaper when she notes that the urine smells like burnt sugar.  You overhear this, and immediately begin a workup for which of the following disorders
 
New onset epilepsy in an adult
A 42-year old Hispanic male presents with recent onset of seizures. The seizures are described as focal with secondary generalization. He has no other complaints, and his past medical history is unremarkable. He has no family history of epilepsy. He drinks...
 
Dementia 02
A 80 year-old male presents to your office accompanied by his daughter, who provides most of the history. The daughter states that for the past 5 years, the patient has been having progressively worsening memory problems, has been seeing people in the room...
 
Guess the disease!
GUESS WHAT I'M THINKING! I'm thinking of a variant of multiple sclerosis (MS), in which optic neuritis and transverse myelitis occur together, or at least within weeks of each other. The transverse myelitis frequently leads to necrosis, and is thus...
 
Ataxia-Telangiectasia 01
Image courtesy of National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health A 10 year-old male presents with a history of grimacing, dysarthric speech, choreoathetosis, and ataxia of the limbs, which have been slowly progressing since early childhood. On exam,...
 
Basal Ganglia 03
Hemiballism is associated with a lesion in which of the following locations
 
Basal Ganglia 02
The basal ganglia send output signals to the thalamus.  This is done primarily by which of the following nuclei
 
Basal Ganglia 01
The basal ganglia receives cortical input primarily through which of the following nuclei
 
Tilt Table Testing 01
Which of the following tilt table studies is most consistent with normal physiology
 
Floppy Infant 01
A term infant is notably weak and hypotonic at birth.  The child is a product of an unremarkable pregnancy and a normal vaginal delivery with no other complications.  The mother, a 32-year old female, had regular prenatal visits.  Her past medical history...
 
Cerebrovascular Anatomy 1
This image shows:
 
Comprehensive Neurological Workup
A 28-year old right-handed man with no prior medical history visits the opthalmologist for followup after refractive surgery for unilateral astigmatism the previous month. A normal left fundus is visualized, but an incidental finding is made of a small foul-smelling...
 
Liver, fava beans, and a fine chianti
 I ate his liver with fava beans and a fine chianti. - H. Lecter, M.D. Hannibal Lecter is cast in a Silence of the Lambs sitcom spinoff complaining of a severe headache, nausea, dizziness, and blurred vision. His skin is a dark yellow, although his sclera are anicteric...
 
Absence Seizure Treatment
An 8 year old female presents with staring spells 10-20 times per day for over 6 months. She has not had any motor seizures according to the family, and has no prior history of seizures. She has no other known medical problems, and has had normal intellectual development...
 
Pediatric Epilepsy Syndromes 01
A 2 month old infant presents with tonic spasms and myoclonic seizures. EEG shows a burst-suppression pattern. Which of the following pediatric epilepsy syndromes does this patient have
 
Tremor 02
The above patient presents to his neurologist complaining of a tremor which has slowly been worsening over the course of several years.  He states the tremor is symmetric, and he notices it mostly in his hands.  It is worse when he's trying to do something with his hand, like eating...
 
Spinal Cord Anatomy 01
The T2 MRI above shows healthy spinal cord at the C6 level.Which of the following statements is most accurate about the area highlighted in red
 
Inclusion Body Myositis 01
A 66 year-old right handed male presents with a 3-year history of worsening weakness. He complains of difficulty walking up stairs. Past medical history and family history are unremarkable. Exam is normal except for symmetric weakness in the quadriceps and finger flexors...
 
Vascular Territories 01
The above is an MRI diffusion-weighted image of an acute infarct.Which of the following vessels is the one most likely to be occluded in this patient
 
Vascular Malformations 03
Which of the following statements about the type of lesion seen in this photomicrograph is most accurate
 
Vascular Malformations 02
Which of the following statements about the type of lesion seen in this photomicrograph is most accurate
 
EEG Patterns 02
A 65 year-old right-handed male had an episode of sudden loss of consciousness about 1 month ago. He is now having an EEG as part of his workup. The sharply contoured waves circled in red represent:
 
EEG patterns 01
This EEG shows someone who is:
 
Pathology in Alzheimer dementia 01
Courtesy of National Institute of AgingThis pathology slide was obtained from an adult patient. Which of the following statements about this image is true
 
Triphasic Waves on EEG
Triphasic waves on EEG:
 
Imaging in Congenital Neurologic Syndromes 01
This image shows a T1 MRI of the brain of a newborn. What is the most likely diagnosis
 
Myopathies 01
Typical presentation of myopathy includes which of the following clinical findings
 
Movement disorders and sleep
Which of the following movement disorders is present (persists) during sleep
 
Hereditary Neuropathy with Liability to Pressure Palsy 01
Which of the following statements about hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy (HNPP) is true
 
Sensory innervation of the upper extremity
A 515 year-old Renaissance man presents to your office, complaining of numbness in the region highlighted in red in the image below.Of the following options, which nerve has a sensory distribution that best matches the region illustrated
 
Neurocutaneous Syndromes 03
Image (C) 2000-2005 Auckland District Health Board You are called to evaluate a newborn girl with unusual skin findings shown in the images above. The patient's mother suffers from seizures, mental retardation, and dental abnormalities. Which of the following...
 
Time Course of EMG/NCS Findings
Sadly, you suffer from anal warts. Your ghoulish surgeon recommends general anesthesia for a surgical resection of the warts. When you awaken, he proudly announces, Congratulations! I have successfully severed your T1 spinal nerve! You are kind of disgruntled...
 
Motor nerve conduction study normal values
You are performing a motor nerve conduction test on an adult. You are testing the tibial nerve, recording at the abductor hallucis brevis muscle. What is the normal value for the amplitude
 
Sensory nerve conduction study normal values
You are performing a sensory nerve conduction test on an adult. You are testing the radial nerve, recording at the snuffbox. Which of the following is the best choice for the distal peak latency
 
Cerebral blood flow 01
A 77 year-old potato salesperson presents is admitted to the neurosciences ICU after head trauma. Among other interventions, an arterial line and an intraventricular catheter are placed. If his mean arterial pressure is mmHg and his intracranial pressure...
 
the mechanisms of AED action
Which of the following is most accurate regarding the mechanisms of AED action
 
antiepileptic medications
Which of the following statements regarding antiepileptic medications is FALSE
 
common neurologic side effects of medications
Which of the following statements regarding common neurologic side effects of medications is FALSE
 
Ataxia 01
A 40 year-old male of Portuguese ancestry presents with a 2 year history of progressive dysarthria, dysphagia, ataxia, ophthalmoplegia, gait difficulties, and exophtlamos. His father and paternal grandmother had similar symptoms, as does his brother. Imaging reveals the findings shown above...
 
CNS tumor pathology
Which of the following is most accurate regarding CNS tumor pathology
 
Developmental Milestones
A woman brings her 14 month old boy into your clinic. The mother is concerned that the child may be developmentally delayed. He imitates scribbling and walks up steps while someone is holding his hand. The mother tells you that the child has a vocabulary of 6 words and feeds himself...
 
Lysosomal Storage Diseases 01
In Niemann-Pick disease type C, where is the genetic locus of the defective gene
 
Primitive Reflexes 1
Which one of the following statements sbout primitive reflexes is true
 
Vascular Malformations 01
Which of the following statements regarding vascular malformations is FALSE
 
neurogenetic syndromes
Which of the following statements regarding neurogenetic syndromes is FALSE
 
the frequency of tumors in different parts of the CNS 2
Which of the following is most accurate regarding the frequency of tumors in different parts of the CNS
 
the frequency of tumors in different parts of the CNS
Which of the following is most accurate regarding the frequency of tumors in different parts of the CNS
 
Tremor 01
A very old man is seen in clinic by his Neurologist. He complains of more than 2 years of worsening tremor. The tremor is worse in the right hand. It improves slightly when he uses the hand to perform a task. He has no cognitive symptoms. He drinks 5 40-oz beers every night...
 
metastatic CNS tumors
Which of the following statements regarding metastatic CNS tumors is FALSE
 
spinal segments innervating muscles of the lower extremity
Which of the following is most accurate regarding spinal segments innervating muscles of the lower extremity
 
Wallenberg Syndrome 1
A famous elderly, retired model presents to the E.R. She had no neurologic defecits prior to this morning, when she awoke to several new symptoms, the most concerning to her of which are changes in the way her face looks, as shown in the image above. She...
 
lacunar stroke syndromes
Which of the following statements regarding lacunar stroke syndromes is FALSE
 
Sensory tracts
Which of the following aspects of sensation is carried by the Trigeminothalamic Tract
 
Lower extremity muscle function and innervation 3
Which muscle or muscles would be most affected by a lesion of the obturator nerve
 
Lower extremity muscle function and innervation 4
Which motion would be most affected by a lesion of the superficial peroneal nerve
 
Wrist Drop
A 47 year-old male tomato grower presents with wrist and finger drop. He is able to extend his arm at the elbow. Abduction of the upper extremity at the shoulder is intact. He is able to weakly extend the wrist. When he does, the hand deviates radially. Flexion of the wrist is intact...
 
Innervation of muscles of the upper extremity
Which of the following muscles is innervated by the median nerve
 
Change in Mental Status
A 76 year-old male hog psychiatrist with no significant past medical history is admitted to the general medicine service overnight because of painful bunions. Apart from tender feet, his initial exam was unremarkable. The next morning, Neurology is consulted to evaluate his change in mental status...
 
Psychoses 01
A 23 year-old male spy is brought by ambulance to the emergency room. He is uncooperative, disheveled, and insists that Jesus wants him to convert all the civets to Scientology. He complains of hearing voices telling him to feed the jacanas. He states that he hates his life and wants to kill himself...
 
Thalamic Nuclei 01
There are several nuclei in the thalamus, associated with different functions. A lesion in the ventral lateral nucleus of the thalamus will affect which of the following functions
 
Thalamic Nuclei 02
There are several nuclei in the thalamus, associated with different afferent sources. Which of the following structures provides input to the reticular nucleus of the thalamus
 
Thalamic Nuclei 03
There are several nuclei in the thalamus, associated with different efferent targets. motor and premotor cortex receives output from which of the following thalamic nuclei
 
Lower extremity muscle function and innervation 1
Which movement would be most affected by a lesion of the L2 and L3 spinal roots
 
Lower extremity muscle function and innervation 2
Which muscle or muscles would be most affected by a lesion of the S1 and S2 spinal roots
 
Muscles innervated by the radial nerve
Which of the following muscles is innervated by the radial nerve
 
Muscles innervated by the ulnar nerve
Which of the following muscles is innervated by the ulnar nerve
 
nerves innervating the muscles of the upper extremity
Which of the following statements regarding nerves innervating the muscles of the upper extremity is FALSE
 
Spinal segments innervating muscles of the lower extremity 1
Which of the following spinal segments typically contributes to the innervation of the quadratus femoris muscle in the lower extremity
 
Spinal segments innervating muscles of the lower extremity 2
Regarding the muscles of the lower extremity, which of the following muscles typically receives innervation from the S2 spinal segment
 
Motor tracts 1
Which of the following is a major function subserved by the Lateral Corticobulbar Tract
 
Extraocular muscles
A 72 year-old female zookeeper visits you in the Albuquerque Baloon Fiesta, complaining of diplopia. You note that most of the time that she is facing you and talking, she sits with her chin turned toward her right shoulder and her left eye adducted. Based...
 
Muscles innervated by the median nerve
Which of the following muscles is innervated by the median nerve
 
Peripheral nerves innervating muscles of the lower extremity
Of the following choices, which ONE answer most accurately describes the nerve or nerves which most typically innervate Abductor hallucis
 
Cerebrovascular Disease 01
A formerly healthy 77 year-old male presents with a 2-week history of worsening dyspnea and weakness. Exam reveals numerous ulcerating lesions in the nares and oral mucosa. There is a left facial palsy and a right abducens palsy. There is weakness in knee...
 
Cortical Stroke Syndromes 01
A patient presents with a stroke. Physical exam reveals obvious blindness, but denies that he is blind. What is the name of this syndrome
 
Pseudotumor Cerebri 01
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic finding of pseudotumor cerebri
 
Cerebellar Anatomy 04
In the structure highlighted in red in the image above, parallel fibers arise from:
 
Cerebellar Anatomy 03
Fibers in the inferior cerebellar peduncle are predominantly:
 
Cerebellar Anatomy 02
The most abundant neurons in the human brain are:
 
Cerebellar Anatomy 01
In the cerebellum, parallel fibers arise from:
 
Pediatric EEGs 01
This is the EEG from a 10-year old patient in the ICU. He is intubated and unresponsive. What is the diagnosis
 
Pediatric EEGs 02
This EEG was recorded from an awake pediatric patient. What clinical features is this child most likely to have
 
Pediatric EEGs 03
This EEG, recorded from an awake pediatric patient, is most characteristic of which of the following diagnoses
 
Major Depressive Episode 01
A person with a major depressive episode suffers from depressed mood or loss of interest in pleasure for a period of at least:
 
Trinucleotide Repeat Diseases 01
Which of the following disorders is associated with a trinucleotide repeat expansion
 
Pathology in Ischemic Stroke 03
A patient presents with an acute ischemic stroke and dies 6 months later. Of the following choices, which is most likely to be seen on pathological examination of the brain at autopsy
 
Pathology in Ischemic Stroke 02
A patient presents with an acute ischemic stroke and dies 1 week later. Of the following choices, which is most likely to be seen on pathological examination of the brain at autopsy
 
Pathology in Ischemic Stroke 01
A patient presents with an acute ischemic stroke and dies 18 hours after onset of symptoms. Of the following choices, which is most likely to be seen on pathology
 
Hereditary Motor and Sensory Neuropathies 01
You examine a child with pes cavus, diminished ankle reflexes, scoliosis, and weakness with wasting of the calf muscles. On nerve conduction study, you find severe slowing of the conduction velocity. Of the following, which of the following syndromes is the most appropriate diagnosis
 
Kennedy's Disease
Kennedy's Disease is a disorder that is:
 
Neurocutaneous Syndromes 01
Which of the following is characteristically associated with neurofibromatosis type 1
 
Neurocutaneous Syndromes 02
Which of the following is characteristically associated with neurofibromatosis type 2
 
Neurogenetic Syndromes 02
A cherry-red spot on the macula is most typical of which of the following disorders
 
Lower Extremity EMG 01
A patient presents with lower extremity weakness. Needle EMG study of the gastrocnemius and gluteus maximus reveals large, long, polyphasic motor unit action potentials. Needle EMG study of the vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, extensor digitorum longus and tibialis anterior are normal...
 
Dementia 01
An 86 year old woman is brought to your office by her son, who is concerned that she is losing her memory. He states that she is constantly asking him questions that he has recently answered, and that she has difficulty remembering things that happened only minutes earlier...
 
Neuron Action Potential
Which of the following statements most accurately describes the two major ionic currents which occur during a neuron action potential
 
Cardiofacial Syndrome 02
A concerned mother brings in her 3-day old daughter to your clinic for concerns of facial asymmetry. While the mother is holding the infant, you notice no abnormalities in her face. However, when you begin to examine the child, she begins to cry, producing a droop on the left side of the mouth...
 
Cardiofacial Syndrome 01
A concerned mother brings in her 3-day old daughter to your clinic for concerns of facial asymmetry. While the mother is holding the infant, you notice no abnormalities in her face. However, when you begin to examine the child, she begins to cry, producing a droop on the left side of the mouth...
 
Peripheral Neuropathy in Heavy Metal Exposure
A patient presents with a history of several months of numbness in his fingers and toes. Prior workup, including folate, B12, homocysteine, MHATP, RPR, and hemoglobin A1C have been unremarkable. The patient states that he used to work for a manufacturing...
 
Prosopagnosia
A patient with prosopagnosia will have the greatest difficulty doing which of the following
 
Spontaneous Activity on Needle EMG 02
Of the following, which pattern of spontaneous activity on EMG represents the firing of muscle fibers (as opposed to motor units)
 
Spontaneous Activity on Needle EMG 02
Of the following, which pattern of spontaneous activity on EMG represents the firing of motor units (as opposed to muscle fibers)
 
Spontaneous Activity on Needle EMG 01
You are performing a needle EMG study. You notice spontaneous discharges. They are single discharges, stable in amplitude, firing at a rate of about 10 Hz with a regular rhythm. Of the following choices, what are these discharges most likely to be
 
Nerve Injuries Affecting the Upper Extremity
A Greek female deity was gouged in the axilla by a Narwhal yesterday. She presents to your clinic today complaining of numbness in the area shaded in green in the image above. She also, as pictured, is unable to extend her arm at the elbow, or abduct at the shoulder...
 
Nerve Injuries Affecting the Upper Extremity
A Greek female deity was gouged in the axilla by a Narwhal yesterday. She presents to your clinic today complaining of numbness in the area shaded in green in the image above. She also, as pictured, is unable to extend her arm at the elbow. Abduction at the shoulder has been spared...
 
Nerve Injuries Affecting the Upper Extremity
A Greek female deity was gouged in the axilla by a Narwhal yesterday. She presents to your clinic today complaining of numbness in the area shaded in green in the image above. She also, as pictured, is unable to extend her arm at the elbow. Abduction at the shoulder has been spared...
 
Nerve Injuries Affecting the Upper Extremity
A Greek female deity was gouged in the axilla by a Narwhal 6 weeks ago. She presents to your clinic today complaining of numbness in the area shaded in green in the image above. She also, as pictured, is unable to extend her arm at the elbow. Abduction at the shoulder has been spared...
 
Nerve Injuries Affecting the Upper Extremity
A Greek female deity was gouged in the axilla by a Narwhal yesterday. She presents to your clinic today complaining of numbness in the area shaded in green in the image above. She also, as pictured, is unable to extend her arm at the elbow. Abduction at the shoulder has been spared...
 
Disorders of Ocular Motility 2
A 499 year-old female presents with recent abrupt onset of abnormal eye movements. On exam, you see the movements shown in the image above as she follows your finger down and then up. Of the following options, which is the most likely site of the lesion
 
Disorders of Ocular Motility 1
A 499 year-old female presents with recent abrupt onset of abnormal eye movements. On exam, you see the movements shown in the image above as she follows your finger to the left and right. Of the following options, which is the most likely site of the lesion
 
Disorders of Ocular Motility 1
A 499 year-old female presents with recent abrupt onset of abnormal eye movements. On exam, you see the movements shown in the image above as she follows your finger to the left and right. Of the following options, which is the most likely site of the lesion
 
Disorders of Ocular Motility 1
A 499 year-old female presents with recent abrupt onset of abnormal eye movements. On exam, you see the movements shown in the image above as she follows your finger to the left and right. Of the following options, which is the most likely site of the lesion
 
Acute brain attack protocol
A 96 year-old male kumquat washer went to bed in his normal state of health at 8:00pm last night, and woke up this morning with left-sided weakness, a facial droop, dysarthria, left-sided numbness, and a left homonymous hemianopsia. Your neurologic exam reveals these same findings...
 
INO
What is the most common cause of bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia
 



User Forums and Comments



Comment
More specifically, the highlighted regions because it is interrupted and in the positions of unmyelinated portion of the axon it could also be the node of ranvier. If you wanted to put another version of the question up with that option you could.
 
Comment
CAn I have access to these images
 
question
Does the cuneocerebellar tract enter the cerebellum via the inferior cerebellar peduncle through the restiform body  (I know the posterior spinal cerebellar tract goes through the restiform body to get into the cerebellum.  Nolte seems to imply the cuneocerebellar...
 
Re: Re: Neuroanatomy
Excellent question.Somatosensory association cortex is a more general term, whereas secondary somatosensory cortex (SS2) is a more specifically defined area.  Secondary somatosensory cortex is one region of somatosensory association cortex; there are others...
 
Re: Neuroanatomy
Is the secondary somatosensory cortex the same as the somatosensory association cortex
 
Re: Comment
Thanks.  That's an excellent idea. 
 
Comment
come on....ingested like 8 pounds of ketamine is suggestive of toxic psychosis...too much so.
 
Comment
What do you think about creating a Resident-level bank and a Med-student level bank  Questions like this one should be for med students.  important though.  awesome website.
 
There is also a neuroanatomy user forum:
http://FrontalCortex.com/page=forums&topic=user_forums&qid=f19
 
Neuroanatomy
For medical students studying neuroanatomy, feel free to ask your questions here, or post answers to questions here.
 
Comment
wonderful sirA gr8 ideasir wat is the scope of doiong Neurology after doing Neuropathology
 
Re: Comments
There is no arrow for NEXT or PREVIOUS Can you organise answer on the on the side of picture.Easy to review.You have excellent material but user UNfriendly presentation.
 
Re: Comments
How to convert in to a DVD format Or a book formatIt is easy to read that way.
 
Re: Comment
I'm looking for a review of nerve conduction about 10 pages with 20 questions at the end. Do you know of any or could you point me in the right direction More of a CME.
 
Krypton half life
I know it's hardly ever used anymore, but it's a great ventilation tracer!  Here's how to remember why:Krypton-81m half-life is 13 seconds. (13.10 to be exact) Superman's unlucky element is kryptonite.  13 is an unlucky number. 
 
PET tracers
Half life for cyclotron-produced PET radionuclides other than F-18:ONC-ology (many are used in cancer imaging)O - N - C:  Oxygen, Nitrogen, Carbon2 x 10 = 202 minutes, 10 minutes, 20 minutes 
 
Bent in left CCA
Anyone can help us,that there is a bent in left cca from CT image. The bent ia at the strating of heart. The problem is sometimes the patient gets no power in legs and hands and chest pain (not hard). Feel to fall down. it lasts for 5-10 minutes. The toral recovery time is 2 hr...
 
Re: Re: Re: What is FrontalCortex.com?
How do I delete account
 
Re: Boards info
which programs out there will help for the neurology boards
 
Re: Boards info
which programs out there will help for the neurology boards
 
Correction...
Dear Miles, There are some grammatical and spelling errors. Please, re-check.  Regards!  
 
Comment
Something is wrong with the latest question of the mini quiz. I do not understand what, please see. Otherwise quiz is fun.Regards s 
 
QuickTime compatibility added
The videos in the EMG tutorial can now be viewed on the Apple iPad, iPod touch, and other machines that require QuickTime.
 
Comment
Very informative and easy to understand.  Your voice was very nice.  Some of the slides could be a little bit larger, but can still be seen alright.
 
Happy learning
I just whosh happy learning to everybody using this site. It is indeed very helpful. Very essential.
 
Re: Re: Comment
Actually, all the choices represent some form of spontaneous activity.  The question is about the generator of said activity.  Fasciculations, doublets, triplets, multiplets, myokymia, cramp potentials, neuromyotonic potentials, and the potentials of a resting...
 
FrontalCortex, Inc.
On March 5, 2010, we filed articles of incorporation for FrontalCortex Inc., a non-profit educational corporation in the state of Arizona. 
 
Re: Comment
I think Dr. Miles is simply noting that all the other choices are due to increased insertional activity. I assume the question is kind of a which one of these things is not like the other. All the distractor answers describe classic insertional activity pattern...
 
Boards info
If you would like info regarding what programs and questions would be the most useful in preparing for the boards just ask them here.
 
Re: Comment
Thanks.  i've uploaded a new version.  It should work now.
 
Comment
This video does not play completely.
 
Millionth Hit
FrontalCortex has now had over 1 million hits!
 
Re: Comment
Excellent!Thanks!
 
Comment
AIN also has deep sensory fibers, but no cutaneous sensory fibers.
 
The Radiology Assistant
The Radiology Assistant has a whole section devoted to neuroradiology.
 
Magnetic Resonance Online Texts: a List & Repository of free, on
Magnetic Resonance Online Texts: a List & Repository of free, online MR Books, Theses, and Courses. Looks like a collection of text resources about MRI. Please let us know what you think about this one.
 
Re: Comment
You are very wlecome, Miles! Thanks for adding my website link! I apologize for the delay in my contribution, as I was very busy. Regards.Osama
 
Re: The citation of ...
Great! I've added Clinical Neurology to the dropdown, and I'll add the citation to your questions. As always, thank you for your excellent contributions! Readers are encouraged to check out rednucleus` own neurology review web page: http://www.neurology4mrcp...
 
Comment
A clickable hyperlink to rednucleus` site. Thanks again!
 
The citation of ...
The citation of these 13 questions about subarachnoid hemorrhage is the Professor Aminoff's Clinical Neurology, 6th edition. And for Dr. Miles, I would be grateful if your drop-down menu for references contains this wonderful book to cite. Regards Osama  
 
Why are you doing this?
Other versions of this question have included, Why the hell do you spend so much time on this and What does your wife thinkWell, here's the deal.  I've been programming since I was in grade school (back then, it was Fortran on punchcards).  Some people golf...
 
Comment
This is a comment.
 
Myopathy vs Denervation
Here's the url for gliageek's video on Denervation, Dystrophy, and Disorders of Energy Metabolism:http://frontalcortex.com/page=oll&qid=1088&topic=24
 
Re: Re: The RITE exam
Good luck tomorrow, everyone!- jdm
 
Re: vegtables
Going back to the original descriptions, any rosette without a lumen is a pseudorosette. However, these days when we say pseudorosette, we mean perivascular psuedorosette, most often seen in ependymomas. Homer Wright (peudo) rosettes contain a center composed...
 
vegtables
What is the difference between a psudorosette and a homer-wrightWhat is the difference between onion bulb and a psamoma body bc it all looks like vegtables to me. 
 
Videos can now be viewed in full-screen mode
Howdy.There are several videos on numerous topics posted on the site.  Previously, you've only been able to watch them in one size.  Now, when you click the full screen button on the video, and it should fill your screen.If you have any difficulties with this, please email me...
 
Re: Re: Re: Re: laminar necrosis
Thanks. S
 
Re: Re: laminar necrosis
Thanks. Is there any other process that causes selective loss of cortical layers III, V, and VI other than lack of oxygen I'd better go to a dark room and ask the neuroradiologist what he or she means by laminar necrosis radiographically. S
 
Re: laminar necrosis
Suzanne, Laminar necrosis is the selective loss of the metabolically specialized, and therefore more oxygen/blood flow dependent, neurons which occupy layers III, V, and VI.I've not heard of post-infectious cerebritis, so I can't help you with this...
 
laminar necrosis
Hoping gliageek can field this one, please:I'm reading about laminar necrosis in anoxia/hypoxia, which is defined as damage to cortical layers III and V, specifically extensive eosinophilic degeneration and death, with sparing of the other neocortical layers...
 
Re: Re: Re: EEG, Eyes, Tongue, and charge
thank you :)
 
Re: Re: eosiophilic granular bodies
I can't rememeber what I was asking the difference of, hehehe,thank you for the answers :)
 
Re: eosiophilic granular bodies
How can you tell the difference on path ---difference between what M
 
Re: corpora amylacea, significance?
Corpora amylacea are an aging associated phenomenon, representing accumulation of insoluble metabolic byproducts, and usually are not associated with disease. They are also increased in areas of chronic gliosis (e.g. epilepsy) and if seen in children may represent...
 
Re: Re: EEG, Eyes, Tongue, and charge
I suppose it does need some explanation.The + signs mean that the cornea has a positive charge.  So wherever the cornea moves towards a lead, you can expect a positive deflection on the EEG.  And whenever the cornea moves away from a lead, you can expect a negative deflection...
 
Cholinesterase inhibitor poisoning
DUMBBELSSDiarrheaUrinationMiosisBronchospasmBradycardiaExcitation of skeletal muscle and CNSLacrimationSweatingSalivationAntidote: Atropine
 
Huntington diseas
Hunting 4 food = Chromosone 4
 
Re: EEG, Eyes, Tongue, and charge
could you elaborate on this
 
Von Hippel Lindau
Von Hippel Lindau 3 words = Chromosome 3
 
corpora amylacea, significance?
I know it is found in astrocyte cytoplasmic processes, but what's its significance
 
eosiophilic granular bodies
they sate this is a feature usually seen in lower grade neoplasms, such as pleomorphic xanthoastrocytom or ganglioglioma, true How can you tell the difference on path2. Not a path questions, but EEG, i heard you had a good mnemonia for the cornea and telling...
 
Re: Re: how do we tell the difference between DNT and oligodendr
One of the original authors of the DNT paper has gone so far to say that a CORTICALLY-BASED tumor in a young patient presenting with seizures is a DNT till proved otherwise. In the specific glioneuronal element of DNT, the neurons appear to float free in lots of extracellular mucopolysaccharide matrix...
 
Re: how do we tell the difference between DNT and oligodendrogli
Ingy -Thanks for the excellent question.Admittedly, oligodendroglioma and dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT) look a lot alike, and you might not be able to tell the difference between them if all you saw was one slide.  For examination purposes,...
 
Re: Re: Re: Most Important Neuropathology Topics for Neurology R
how do we tell the difference between DNT and oligodendroglioma, this egg like and fried egg apperance
 
Re: The RITE exam
The dates for the neurology Residency Inservice Training Exam for 2009:Friday, February 27, 2008Saturday, February 28, 2008Sunday March 1, 2008   
 
Re: Re: Most Important Neuropathology Topics for Neurology Resid
PKAN = Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration.This is the ailment formerly known as Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome.  Since Hallervorden and Spatz were involved in Nazi atrocities, they don't get to keep the disease anymore.  
 
Re: Most Important Neuropathology Topics for Neurology Residents
PKAN
 
Re: Mee's Lines
It Be an IDy BiDy BaBy's DaDdy T1 is dark and burns bright a bit with methemoglobin, and darkens when hemosiderin develops.T2 is bright whenever oxidizing ionization (Fe2+ or extracellular methemoglobin) occurs, but also darkens when hemosiderinization occurs...
 
Re: MRI findings in ICH
It Be an IDy BiDy BaBy's DaDdy T1 is bright with methemoglobin.T2 is bright whenever ions (Fe2+ or extracellular methemoglobin) occur. 
 
The Pupils
Thanks for the question. Please post more. I would suggest the use of sluggishly reactive pupils rather than mildly reactive pupils; I think the term mild is somewhat misleading in this Parinaud's, i.e. the pupils could not be mildly, moderately, or severely reactive...
 
Re: Most Important Neuropathology Topics for Neurology Residents
Here's a bit on pseudopallisading necrosis in glioblastoma.
 
Re: Rule of 4 in the brainstem
Welcome. And thanks for the helpful heuristics.
 
Most Important Neuropathology Topics for Neurology Residents
Okay, so here's the scenario.You're a neurology resident, and you're studying for some big boards-type exam.  FrontalCortex.com has hundreds and hundreds of neuropathology images and stuff, but you want to focus on the high-yield neuropathology...
 
Rule of 4 in the brainstem
Hello Everyone. I just found this very interesting and would like to share it. The are:4 structures in the midline beginning with M.4 structures to the side beginning with S.4 cranial nerve in the medulla, 4 in the pons, 4 above the pons (2 in the midbrain)the...
 
Gray's Anatomy

 
PlantAr, not PlantEr
I love the site, but the spelling of the word plantAr as plantEr is hard to accept
 
Comment
i want to learn more from this WEBSITE...
 
Another Pathology Site
Another pathology site, where users can share path images and videos. Remember, you can do this on FrontalCortex, too!
 
Mee's Lines
Mee's lines are a sign of Heavy Metal poisoning.Like guitar strings across your fingernails.  
 
Re: References
Timing of angio is discussed in: Selman, W.R., Sunshine, J.L., Tarr, R.W., and Ratcheson, R.A. (2004). Intracranial aneurysms and subarachnoid hemorrhage. In Bradley, W.G., Daroff, R.B., Fenichel, G.M., and Jankovic, J. (Eds.). Neurology in Clinical Practice, Fourth Edition...
 
Nice question.
Thanks to rednucleus for this question.For the reader interested in reading more, check Adams & Victor, 8th edition, pages 540-541.  Note this quote from those pages, in reference to the use of acetazolamide (and other drugs) for pseudotumor:We have occasionally...
 
References
This question needs more appropriate references.Adams and Victor does not contain any mention of choroiditis.
 
Comment
For the reader interested in learning more, check our Adams & Victor, 8th edition, page 145.
 
References
A more appropriate reference is needed for this question.Adams and Victor does not address the statements made here.
 
References
Additional references are needed for this question.Adams & Victor does not discuss these defects.
 
Excellent Question
This is an excellent question.For those wanting to read more, check Adams & Victor 7th ed. page 893, or 8th edition page 719.Thanks again to rednucleus for this plethora of great questions.  Please keep 'em coming! 
 
References
This is a good question, but additional references are needed. As far as I can tell, Adams & Victor does not say anything about when the scan should be performed, or about the limits of angiography, and that is what this question is about.
 
Lots of New Stuff
There are a lot of new features on FrontalCortex which have been added over the past few months.Most significantly, we've added the ability for users to create and maintain multimedia online courses.  Check out the courses tab.  You'll find an online...
 
MRI findings in ICH
Blood products degrade over time. These changes are relflected on MRI T1 and T2 depending on time, this allows physicians to estimate how long blood has been present. Changes occur at the following times: 14 d: chronic  Mnemonic based on T1 and T2 changes:...
 
Comment
now i can't delete this
 
Re: Re: MRI findings in ICH
Howdy.Thanks for the mnemonic on blood on the MRI.I've tweaked the WSYWIG editor for forums and comments, so it should work now.One note - once someone replies to a comment, the original comment cannot be edited.
 
Re: MRI findings in ICH
i can't format this well... not sure why.
 
Specific Reference
Thanks to rednucleus for this good question. For the reader interested in learning more, details can be found on page 1361 in Adams & Victor's 7th Edition, or page 1103 in the 8th Edition.
 
Comment
Thanks to rednucleus for this well-thought out question. I did want to point out to the reader that, while a normal brain is more suggestive of a type I Chiari malformation, a type I Chiari does not guarantee a normal brain. There were 4 types of malformations...
 
Excellent Website
Very helpful website; well done Miles! For those who are interested in neurology, you will find high quality teaching stuffs here. Regards and all the very best! Amin
 
Neurology4MRCP
This is rednucleus' site, with 1500 multiple choice neurology review questions available for download. Most impressive.
 
Fantastic!
Thanks to gliageek for the incredible job on this highly informative presentation on the pathology of meningiomas. Highly recommended for anyone wanting to learn more about meningiomas.
 
Re: Re: What is FrontalCortex.com?
Howdy. Thanks for letting me know. With some recent upgrades, the question editor developed a bug. I tracked it down and fixed it; it should work now. Thanks for trying to submit a question!
 
Muscle innervated by Radial Nerve
RAW (as in Radial) BEAST RAW: Radial (picture a beast yelling RAW) Brachialradialis Extensors ABDuctor pollicis longus Supinator Tricepts
 
Re: What is FrontalCortex.com?
hi i submitted a question on carotid dissection i am not sure if it uploaded and how can i tell if it is accepted thx gdiaz, m.d.
 
U Idaho Anatomy
A nice anatomy review from U Idaho
 
Comment
The Human Brain Atlas at Michigan State University. In this atlas you can view MRI sections through a living human brain as well as corresponding sections stained for cell bodies or for nerve fibers.
 
B Vitamins
How do you remember which B vitamin is which Just remember TRN (or The RN): T = Thiamine = B1 R = Riboflavin = B2 N = Niacin = B3 Suggested by Annette Niestroy-Janus, M.D.
 
American Journal of Psychiatry Podcasts
American Journal of Psychiatry Podcasts Recent podcast: Highlights from the February issue
 
Lancet Neurology Podcasts
Lancet Neurology Podcasts Recent podcast: Strokes in children and more
 
Montreal Neurological Institute
Montreal Neurological Institute Recent podcast: Accelerating Medical Research: The Myelin Repair Foundation
 
Cognitive Neuroscience Arena Podcasts
Cognitive Neuroscience Arena Podcasts Recent podcast: Interview with Dr. Maria Jonsdottir
 
Royal College of Psychiatrists Let Wisdom Guide
Royal College of Psychiatrists Let Wisdom Guide Recent podcast: Virtual reality study of paranoid thinking in the general populace
 
The Dana Foundation Audio Archive
The Dana Foundation Audio Archive Recent podcast: Neuroscience Meets Psychoanalysis
 
Dr. Ginger Campbell’s Brain Science Podcast
Dr. Ginger Campbell’s Brain Science Podcasts is a great place to start and to finish too! Recent podcast: Interview with Rachel Herz, author of The Scent of Desire
 
Most Commons
Ever notice how every review of a disease, no matter how rare, begins with a phrase like, This disease is the most common cause of insert phrase here Well, MostCommons.com is a search engine which looks only for phrases like that. So next time you are presenting...
 
Neurophilosophy
Might not help with your boards, but makes interesting reading.
 
Neurology
This is the podcast from the journal Neurology.
 
Another neuroradiology site
This is another radiology search site. I find it more cryptic than Goldminer. It doesn't return images, but will give you a list of internal hyperlinks which are often related to your search terms. When you click one of the links, you'll get a brief outline-form explanation...
 
Goldminer Radiology Search Engine
This is a cool idea - a search engine for radiology images. This is a product of the American Roentgen Ray Society (ARRS) and is on their website. It searches through tons of journals, picking out images that match your search query.
 
Comment
The only blog about neuropathology! It contains web links of interest to neurologists.
 
Where does funding for FrontalCortex come from?
FrontalCortex.com is funded out of my own pocket.  This cost is offset in part by income from the advertisements which appear on every page, and by the sale of merchandise such as books and review materials, and parietal watches.
 
Who the heck are you?
I'm J. Douglas Miles, M.D., Ph.D.I am a licensed physician and a neurology resident.
 
What is FrontalCortex.com?
FrontalCortex.com is a resource for residents, medical students, and attending physicians studying neurology.It features a free question bank with over 230 questions. Each of these questions has many permutations, so that you'll get a slightly different question each time you load it...
 
LGN & MGN nuclei of the thalamus
To rememer that MGN is involved with audition and LGN is involved with vision:Light, LGNMusic, MGN 
 
Re: Re: Comments
Thanks!Movement disorder & neuroopth videos are a great idea.  If I'm able to find some, I'll definitely put them up here.  Any ideas where I might encounter someIn the meantime, here are a couple of questions on FrontalCortex that have animations...
 
Re: Comments
very good site and i suggest adding video moviez of movement disorder or neuropthalmology cases and thank u for great jobsulaiman
 
History of Neurology and Neurosurgery
Less useful for the boards, but cool because it's interesting:  a page of links about the history of neurology and neurosurgery on the web site of the American Association of Neurological Surgeons.
 
Adam, God, and the Parkinsonian Tremor
This question features Michelagnelo's Creation of Adam, with a new twist.
 
Vitruvian Man
This is the question with Leonardo da Vinci's Virtuvian Man. 
 
Test
This is a test.
 
Dr. Arbogast's Migraine Treatment Recommendations
Rescue Treatments for Acute Migrainesumatriptan 6 mg subcutaneously chlorpromazine 12.5 mg slow IV push q 20 min (maximum 50 mg) prochlorperazine 10 mg slow IV push droperidol 2.5 mg slow IV push q 30 min (maximum 7.5 mg) depakon 1 gram IV push over 1 min...
 
The Mona Lisa again
The Mona Lisa, with Parinaud synrome.Gotta love it.
 
Another Mona Lisa question
This is the third of the Mona Lisa questions, this time with a lateral medullary syndrome.
 
Mona Lisa Eyes
Someone told me they saw another page with the Mona Lisa with an INO.  Anyone else seen that
 
Re: Question Contest
And here's the link to enter a new question!
 
Re: Question Contest - Win Cash!
Here's the link for the question contest!
 
Re: Question Contest
Here's the page with the contest rules.
 
Question Contest
Howdy!So the new Question Contest is up and running.Here's how it works:  the next 100 questions that get submitted to FrontalCortex.com will be entered into the contest. This time around, the question can be on any topic in neurology.  The questions can...
 
Question Contest - Win Cash!
There's a new question contest which is going on now.The prize money increases as time goes on, but only the first 100 questions will get entered into the contest. I think you'd better enter now.-jdm
 
Comment
Neuropathology cases from the VA
 
Try reloading this question.
This question has a good number of images and permutations programmed into it.Hit the reload button a few times, and you'll see what I mean.-jdm 
 
The RITE exam
Dates for the neurology Residency Inservice Training Exam for 2008:Friday, February 29, 2008Saturday, March 1, 2008Sunday March 2, 2008 
 
The BRAIN-O-METER
The Brain-O-Meter, shown above, lets you know what other users thought about this question.If a question gets 5 brains (), then most people who rated it thought it was excellent.  A question with 0 brains () is considered lousy by most people who rated it...
 
The RATE THIS QUESTION button
The rate this question button lets you enter feedback on a specific question.Clicking this button opens a simple form that prompts you for different categories of feedback. Use the drop-down menus to choose your ratings for the questions.Overall Rating: ...
 
The CLONE button
The clone button, shown above, lets you create a brand new question, using the current question as a template.Let's say you like the question you're looking at, but have some ideas as to how to make it better.  Click the clone button, and edit the...
 
The RANDOM QUESTION button
The random question button, shown above, will load a random question from the database. Use the button to simulate that wonderful feeling of taking a test. You never know what's going to come next.
 
The RELOAD button
The reload button, shown  above, will reload the same question.Because each question is really a computer program with many permutations, when you reload the question it will look different than the last time you saw it. Simpler questions differ only in the order in which the answers are presented...
 
Overview
The question bank has an ever-growing number of neurology review questions.  Some were written by me, others by users.  Each one has the following features:Questions will change (some subtly, some completely) each time you load the page.  How much a question...
 
What is FrontalCortex.com?
FrontalCortex.com is a resource for residents, medical students, and attending physicians studying neurology.It features an ever-growing question bank filled with multiple questions on many different neurology topics, to help you study for the neurology boards...
 
EEG Image Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.
The EEG image used in this question comes courtesy of Wikimedia Commons. The image is an EEG of generalized 3Hz spike and wave discharges.  This image is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 2.0.  For full documentation, please see: http://commons...
 
Neurofibromatosis Type 1
NF1 is the most common form of neurofibromatosis.  It has an incidence of approximately 1 in 3000 live births.  It has autosomal dominant inheritance, with the abnormal gene located on chromosome 17.  About 50% of cases are due to spontaneous mutation, with no prior family history...
 
Neurofibromatosis Type 1
Where's the gene for NF1Chromosome 17.How do you remember this  There are 17 letters in von Recklinghausen and Neurofibromatosis.
 
Overview
Neurofibromatosis is one of the most common genetic diseases affecting the nervous system.  The incidence is approximately 1 in 3000 live births.Four forms are described in the literature:Neurofibromatosis type 1 (aka NF1, von Reckinghausen disease, Classic...
 
Re: FrontalCortex Questions & Quizzes on Inborn Errors of Metabo
Can you identify the IEM associated with this MRI image
 
Re: FrontalCortex Questions & Quizzes on Inborn Errors of Metabo
A simple quiz about the IEMs associated with cataracts.  Many permuttations.
 
Re: FrontalCortex Questions & Quizzes on Inborn Errors of Metabo
A huge quiz specifically on lysosomal storage diseases, a subset of inborn errors of metabolism. Billions of permutations.
 
Re: FrontalCortex Questions & Quizzes on Inborn Errors of Metabo
A quiz on neuroophtalmologic findings in neurogenetic syndromes, including some IEMs.
 
Re: FrontalCortex Questions & Quizzes on Inborn Errors of Metabo
A superhuge quiz about neurogenetic syndromes, many of which are inborn errors of metabolism. Hundreds of billions of permutations.
 
Re: FrontalCortex Questions & Quizzes on Inborn Errors of Metabo
A quiz testing 13 different IEMs and their various aromas. Hundreds of thousands of question permuations.
 
Re: FrontalCortex Questions & Quizzes on Inborn Errors of Metabo
Another question about smelling pee in inborn errors of metabolism. Much more feedback and explanation, but much fewer permutations.
 
FrontalCortex Questions & Quizzes on Inborn Errors of Metabolism
The following FrontalCortex.com quizzes and questions deal with Inborn Errors of Metabolsim:
 
Inborn Errors of Metabolism
Inborn errors of metabolism are defined as abnormalities of the synthesis, transport, or turnover of nutritional and cellular compounds. Individually, they are rare, but as a group, their incidence is about 1 in 1,000. They are typically genetic defects in metabolic enzymes, and as such are inherited...
 
Nice
Nice one, dryman.Don't think I didn't notice how you stuck me in there.-jdm 
 
Neurology Podcasts
Know of any good links to neurology-related podcastsLeave them here. If you use the new link button, you'll be able to leave a hypertext link to the podcast's URL.-jdm 
 
Privacy Policy
At long last, after much procrastination, I have finally posted the privacy policy for FrontalCortex.com.In summary, FrontalCortex.com does not share your personal info with 3rd parties.If you post stuff (e.g., new questions, new mnemonics, forums) some basic...
 
NIHSScalc 1.2.0
To install this program onto your PalmOS handheld:Click the link above where it says Download this free programSave the file to your desktop or laptop computer where you have your Palm softwareDouble click on the file.  A window will open telling you that nihsscalc...
 
NEJM
The New England Journal of Medicine podcast.A weekly summary of articles from the latest journal. 
 
Comment
Hey, Steve.Do Seniors and Juniors change rotations at the same time now-jdm 
 
Comment
 Here is the pneumonic for one of the most wanted  NSU Q'sindication 4 intubationIntubation IS to give sombody REST + O2IS - increase in ICP ; SHOCK ( cardiovascular)REST - RR 35 , RR 5 E - Exhaution or labored breathing S - Prolonged recovery from SURGERY/TRAUMAT - Tidal vol 5 ml/kgO2 - SaO2
 
"Forgot Password" feature
I've added a new Forgot Password feature to FrontalCortex.com.For privacy reasons, nobody knows a user's password except that user. Even I have no way to see your passwords. However, since passwords get lost, I've just added a feature that lets...
 
Pediatric Neurology
Child Neurology podcast.
 
Pediatric Epilepsy Syndromes
So what do you think of this questionLeave your comments! 
 
Comment
Leave comments on this question here...
 
Comment
Leave comments here...
 
Forum Area
This is an area where users can enter feedback. I guess the chiefs could use it to leave notes for each other about the residents' schedules.-jdm  
 
Ohio University Neuropathology test questions
Good stuff!
 
The Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) neuroradiol
Requires a CWRU ID and Password.
 
Comment
A site with practice questions and many links to other neurology and neuroscience resources
 
International Society of Neuropathology Case of the Month.
Pathology! I don't know about you, but I have a hard time finding good path cases. This site is chock full of 'em.
 
Re: Useful Links Forum
Uniformed Services University Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences web site - has a nice radiology database and a coold lesion locator page.
 
Re: Useful Links Forum
NeuropathologyWeb.org - a nice page with lots of teaching materials and study questions, on neuropathology.
 
Re: Useful Links Forum
NIH's Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man website is a great resource for reading about genetic diseases. 
 
Re: Useful Links Forum
The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) -
 
Re: Useful Links Forum
Baylor Neurology Case of the Month
 
Useful Links Forum
Know of a good neurology-related web site Leave a link here!Note:  You have to use the new link button to enter the link. -jdm
 
Re: Useful Links Forum
Neurology section of Medical Algorithm Project
 
Comments
What do you think of FrontalCortex.comLeave your comments and suggestions!-jdm 
 
Comments and Forums
New things!I've heard a lot of suggestions about the comment system, and I've tried implementing these changes. Users can now provide feedback in several areas of the site, with forums that appear at the bottom of the page. You must be logged in...
 
Comment
This is a sample 
 
Comment
I'm considering taking questions like these, which have hundreds or thousands of permutations, and breaking them up into many smaller questions, so that they're more like the other questions in the bank.Any feedback 
 
ISBN and PubMed Numbers for references
It's now a lot easier to create your own question.In the question form (the general one, not the one for the contest), you can now enter the PubMed id of a journal article or the  ISBN number of a textbook.  No more having to enter the citation by hand!-jdm 
 
WYSIWYG
There is now a WYSIWYG editor for comments and question submissions.-jdm
 
Question Contest
The April Question Contest is now up and running! Submit an original question on Movement Disorders by April 30, 2007 to qualify to win 100 dollars (US). -jdm
 
Change Password
There is now a tab which will allow you to change your password. Look for it on the tabstrip on the left, under User Resources. -jdm
 
Journal Headlines
There is now a page which shows headlines from several key journals, including Neurology, Archives of Neurology, JAMA, and NEJM. Each headline is hyperlinked to the journal article. Enjoy. -jdm
 
New Buttons on Question Pages
There are some new buttons on the question pages.The old functions are still there (back to the top of the page, see a similar question, see a random question), but with a cleaner looking layout. There is also a new button: Rate this question. It's the one that looks like a bar graph...
 
EEG, Eyes, Tongue, and charge
How to remember the charge of the cornea and tongue (relevant for EEG artifacts):           (+)     (+)                .         ----------/ 
 
TAN HATS for hypothalamus.
TAN HATS for hypothalamus. 1) Thirst (I'm supra-opti thirsty!) 2) Adenohypophysis via Release Hormones (see Pituitary = FLAT PiG) 3) Neurohypophysis (via oxy/ADH) 4) Hunger/Satiety 5) Autonomic (Anterior is pArasympathetic; Suprachiasmatic is circadian...
 
Pituitary - FLAT PiG
Pituitary - FLAT PiG:FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH, Prolactin, (ignore), GH
 
Mnemonics Forum
Have a good mnemonic  Share it!-jdm
 
Re: Re: Random Question
Thanks! -jdm
 
Re: Random Question
I like the random question option. It helps keep me on my toes.
 
Random Question
Now, every time you use the question bank, you have the option of choosing a random question. This should help to simulate the wonderful feeling of taking an actual exam. Who knows what the next question will be about Give it a try. -jdm
 
Welcome!
Welcome to FrontalCortex.com! This web site was started as a resource for neurology residents, medical students studying neurology, and medical personnel in the field of neurology. FrontalCortex.com has many useful resources. There is a section with downloadable software for your PDA...
 



Online Course Content



Cranial Nerves
Cranial Nerves An introduction to the cranial nerves   Terminology:By the end of this section, make certain that you understand what each of these terms mean, and can apply them appropriately.  If applicable, make sure you can find each item on a whole brain, brain section, or image of a brain...
 
Vasculature of the brain
Vasculature of the BrainA tutorial on the arterial and venous supply of the brain.  Terminology:By the end of this section, make certain that you understand what each of these terms mean, and can apply them appropriately.  If applicable, make sure you can...
 
The Brainstem
The BrainstemAn introductory overview of the brainstem   Terminology:By the end of this section, make certain that you understand what each of these terms mean, and can apply them appropriately.  If applicable, make sure you can find each item on a whole brain, brain section, or image of a brain...
 
Neuroanatomy landmarks: Basal ganglia
Neuroanatomy Landmarks: Basal GangliaAn introduction to the structures that comprise the basal ganglia, and to the surrounding tissues  Terminology:By the end of this section, make certain that you understand what each of these terms mean, and can apply them appropriately...
 
Neuroanatomy landmarks: Thalamus
Neuroanatomy Landmarks: DiencephalonAn introduction to the thalamus and structures around it.  Terminology:By the end of this section, make certain that you understand what each of these terms mean, and can apply them appropriately.  If applicable, make sure...
 
Neuroanatomy landmarks: Ventricles
Neuroanatomy Landmarks: VentriclesA discussion of the structure and function of the ventricles and CSF.  Terminology:By the end of this section, make certain that you understand what each of these terms mean, and can apply them appropriately.  If applicable,...
 
Looking at the brain from different angles
Looking at the Brain from Different AnglesThe brain is a complex 3-dimensional object. To gain an understanding of its anatomy, it is necessary to be able to recognize its various structures from different points of view. This section will also serve as...
 
Brain and Brainstem
Brain and BrainstemThis section discusses the anatomical strcutures of the cerebral hemispheres and the brainstem, and their related functions.Terminology:By the end of this section, make certain that you understand what each of these terms mean, and can apply them appropriately...
 
Overview and Surface Anatomy
Overview and Surface AnatomyOverview of the human brain, and a look at its surface anatomy  Terminology:By the end of this section, make certain that you understand what each of these terms mean, and can apply them appropriately.  If applicable, make sure...
 
White Matter (image)

 
Gyrus (image)

 
Cells are Batteries
 Section 1: Cells are BatteriesCells are Batteries.  They generate an electrical potential (voltage) across the cell membrane.  For most cells, this is analogous to the DC current generated by a battery.   The video above shows how the voltage across...
 
Synapses and the Neuromuscular Junction (NMJ)
 Section 6:  Synapses and the Neuromuscular Junction (NMJ)Neurons can use electrical potentials to send signals from one part of the neuron to another, but to communicate with other neurons (or muscle cells or other target cells), they usually use chemical signals...
 
Muscle Fiber Action Potential
 Section 5: Muscle Fiber Action PotentialWhen the cell membrane of neurons or muscle fibers is depolarized enough, they propagate a nondecremental wave of electrical polarization called an action potential.  Neurons use these action potentials to quickly transmit information across distance...
 
The Neuron Action Potential
 Section 4: Neuron Action PotentialWhen the cell membrane of neurons or muscle fibers is depolarized enough, they propagate a nondecremental wave of electrical polarization called an action potential.  Neurons use these action potentials to quickly transmit information across distance...
 
Meat Wires
 Section 3:  Meat WiresNerve cells (neurons) and muscle cells (muscle fibers) are specialized cells whose cell membrane potential can change.  These changes contribute to the basic functioning of these cells.  Nerve cell processes can carry electical signals similar to how wires do...
 
Why Are Cells Batteries?
 Section 2:  Why Are Cells BatteriesIn this second section of this chapter, we explore the origin of the cell membrane potential.  We've established that Cells are Batteries. Batteries have an electrical potential.  That's what makes them batteries...
 
Sodium-Potassium ATPase (image)

 
Goldman Equation (image)

 
Nernst potassium (image)

 
Nernst sodium (image)

 
nernst equation (image)

 
cell sodium and potassium (image)

 
cell sodium gradient (image)

 
cell potassium gradient (image)

 
Cell Membrane Detailed Diagram Labeled (image)

 
NMJ (image)

 
Neuron with oligodendrocyte and myelin (image)

 
Muscle Fiber Action Potential
489
 
Neuron Action Potential 2
488
 
Neuron Action Potential
177
 
Effect of Sodium Influx on a Neuron Membrane
487
 
Resting Potential of a Neuron 2
486
 
Cell Membrane Detailed Diagram Labeled (image)

 
Cell Membrane Detailed Diagram Blank (image)

 
Neuron Resting Potential
485
 
Basic Physiology of Nerve and Muscle
 Basic Physiology of Nerve and MuscleLearning objectives:   To gain an understanding of basic physiology of nerves and muscleTo understand what a membrane potential is and what makes it happenTo understand what an action potential is, and how it comes aboutTo...
 
Neuroanatomy
A set of educational materials intended to supplement a second-year medical school neuroscience course. If you are currently using this to study neuroanatomy, I would request that you direct any questions to me through the Neuroanatomy User Forum on FrontalCortex...
 
How to use this course
How to use this courseThis is an online supplement to a neuroanatomy course.  This resource is in progress, with a target completion date of December 12, 2014.  
 
Introduction to the Nervous System
Introduction to the Nervous SystemYou may want to start by reviewing anatomical directions and planes of section, particularly as they apply to neuroanatomy.  If you are already really comfrotable with this nomenclature, click here to start with a brief introduction to nerve cell physiology...
 
Directions and Planes of Section in Neuroanatomy
   An orientation to the nervous system, introducing common terms used to describe directions and orientation, specifically as it pertains to neuroanatomy. When we are discussing directions in anatomy, definitions are based on a person being in...
 
Superior-Inferior whole body (image)

 
Inferior (image)

 
Superior (image)

 
Electric Meat
Electric MeatWhy is the nervous system different from skin, liver, kidneys, or spleen  The fundamental building blocks of the nervous system and muscles are electrically active cells.   These cells process inputs and generate outputs.  Neurons are individual...
 
Illustration of the Human Nervous System, by Eustachi (image)

 
Ventral surface of the brain (image)

 
Olfactory nerves and olfactory bulbs with arrow (image)

 
Olfactory nerves and olfactory bulbs (image)

 
The Neurological Physical Exam, and Approach to Diagnostic Problems in Neurology
Tying all this stuff together, this section focuses on how anatomy and the clinical neuro exam interrelate, and describes strategies for reaching a diagnosis in neurological clinical situations.
 
Cerebral Cortex
Cerebral CortexA description of the functions of different sections of the cerebral cortex. This includes (but is not limited to) the FrontalCortex.Terminology:By the end of this section, make certain that you understand what each of these terms mean, and can apply them appropriately...
 
Olfaction, Limbic System, and Autonomics
Olfaction, Limbic System, and AutonomicsAn overview of the olfactory system, limbic system, autonomic nervous system, and the hypothalamus.Terminology:By the end of this section, make certain that you understand what each of these terms mean, and can apply them appropriately...
 
Thalamus
A discussion of the various nuclei of the thalamus, and their functions and connections.
 
Audition and the Vestibular System
Audition and the Vestibular SystemAn introduction to the anatomy and physiology of the ear and structures involved in hearing and the vestibular system.Terminology:By the end of this section, make certain that you understand what each of these terms mean, and can apply them appropriately...
 
Vision
VisionA introduction to the anatomy and physiology of the eye and structures that are involved in vision.Terminology:By the end of this section, make certain that you understand what each of these terms mean, and can apply them appropriately.  If applicable,...
 
Cerebellum
Cerebellum A description of the anatomy and function of the cerebellum.Terminology:By the end of this section, make certain that you understand what each of these terms mean, and can apply them appropriately.  If applicable, make sure you can find each item...
 
Motor Cranial Nerves
Motor Cranial NervesThis section describes the cranial nerves that carry motor information. Also discusses corticobulbar pathways.Terminology:By the end of this section, make certain that you understand what each of these terms mean, and can apply them appropriately...
 
Motor Pathways
Motor PathwaysThis section describes the anatomical structures that carry motor information from the brain to the body, including upper motor neuron and lower motor neuron pathways.Terminology:By the end of this section, make certain that you understand what...
 
Sensory Cranial Nerves
Sensory Cranial NervesThis section introduces the cranial nerves that provide sensory information. The nerves carrying general somatic sensation, visceral sensation, and the sensation of taste are described in detail. Audition, olfaction, and vision are...
 
Sensory Pathways
Sensory PathwaysThis section introduces spinal cord anatomy, and discusses the anatomy of the various pathways that bring sensory information from the skin and body back to the central nervous system. Terminology:By the end of this section, make certain that...
 
PCA stroke, medial surface of brain, labelled (image)

 
PCA stroke, medial surface of brain (image)

 
Horizontal slice of gross brain (image)

 
Normal head CT, for comparison (image)

 
CT SAH (image)

 
Coronal section (image)

 
midsagittal section of brain - illustration from Gray's anatomy (image)

 
Midsagittal section of brain - illustration from Gray's anatomy (image)

 
Sagittal gross section of normal brain (image)

 
Looking at the brain from different angles: coronal sections
Recognizing structures in coronal or frontal slices of brain.
 
Looking at the brain from different angles: horizontal sections
Recognizing structures in horizontal or axial slices of brain.
 
Looking at the brain from different angles: sagittal sections
Recognizing structures in sagittal slices of brain.
 
Looking at the brain from different angles: Whole brain
External landmarks looking at the whole brain.
 
Venous drainage of the brain
A tutorial on the venous drainage of the brain.
 
Arteries of the brain
A tutorial on the arterial supply of the brain.
 
ACA infarct sagittal labeled (image)

 
ACA infarct sagittal (image)

 
PICA stroke, whole brain photo (image)

 
Left MCA stroke, whole brain (image)

 
Brain slice, coronal. (image)

 
Alexia without agraphia resulting from ischemic stroke with arrow (image)

 
MRI Fluent Aphasia with arrow (image)

 
MRI - Enhancing Meninges with arrow (image)

 
MRI - normal meninges for comparison (image)

 
MRI - Enhancing Meninges (image)

 
CT dense MCA highlighted (image)

 
MRI DWI left ACA stroke (image)

 
CT left PCA stroke (image)

 
Right MCA stroke (image)

 
Alexia without agraphia resulting from ischemic stroke (image)

 
MRI Fluent Aphasia (image)

 
MRI T2 meningioma (image)

 
MRI T1 meningioma (image)

 
MRI T1 Gad meningioma (image)

 
MRI GRE left frontal meningioma (image)

 
MRI FLAIR meningioma (image)

 
MRI DWI meningioma (image)

 
MRI ADC meningioma (image)

 
MRI acute right MCA stroke (image)

 
CT Circle of willis (image)

 
CT Circle of Willis highlighted (image)

 
MRI T2 MCA ACA normal (image)

 
T2 MRI MCA ACA highlighted (image)

 
MRI T2 semicircular canals (image)

 
Normal head CT (image)

 
CTA Right M1 occlusion (image)

 
CT dense MCA (image)

 
Major Landmarks and Divisions of the Nervous System
Major Landmarks and Divisions of the Nervous System This section describes major landmarks of the nervous system, and what comprises the central and peripheral nervous system.  Terminology:By the end of this section, make certain that you understand what each...
 
Lobes of the cerebral hemispheres (image)

 
Lobes of the cerebral hemispheres (video)

 
Brain Horizontal VHP (image)

 
Brain Horizontal Cortex highlight (image)

 
Grey Matter vs White Matter (image)

 
NMJ (image)

 
Myelin sheath (image)

 
How myelin wraps around an axon (image)

 
Oligodendrocyte (image)

 
Neuron myelin segment (image)

 
Neuron myelin (image)

 
Neuron axon (image)

 
Neuron dendrites (image)

 
Neuron soma (image)

 
Neuron with connections (image)

 
Neuron with afferent connections (image)

 
Neuron, numbered (image)

 
Neuron (image)

 
Lateral (image)

 
Medial (image)

 
Rostral Caudal whole body (image)

 
Parasagittal Plane (image)

 
Rostral-Caudal (image)

 
Ventral (image)

 
Dorsal (image)

 
Distal (image)

 
Proximal (image)

 
Anatomical Position (image)

 
Planes of Section (image)

 
Planes of Section Fish (image)

 
Sagittal Plane (image)

 
Coronal Plane (image)

 
Horizontal Plane (image)

 
Neuropathology for Neurology Residents
Welcome to neuropathology for neurology residents.This online course was developed by Dr. Mark Cohen and Dr. Doug Miles.  It is intended to be used as the cornerstone for a resident-level neuropathology course, in conjunction with assigned textbook reading...
 
Neuropathology Board Review part 6 (video)

 
Neuropathology Board Review part 5 (video)

 
Neuropathology Board Review part 4 (video)

 
Neuropathology Board Review part 3 (video)

 
Neuropathology Board Review part 2 (video)

 
Neuropathology Board Review part 1 (video)

 
Neuropathology Board Review (video)

 
Neuropathology Board Review
WelcomeWe are proud to present a series of videos by Dr. Mark Cohen, providing an overview of topics in neuropathology.When you click the thumbnails, the videos may begin playing in small size - you can enlarge them by clicking the square in the upper right hand corner of each video...
 
Neuroneurocysticercosis (image)

 
More Picture Mnemonics
Mnemonics are tools for remembering concepts. They are useful in quickly learning and retaining concepts medical school. University of Hawaii medical student Adam Sprouse-Blum suggests that for visual learners, photographs containing cues to remember the...
 
Achilles Reflex (image)

 
Agraphesthesia (image)

 
Alzheimer Disease (image)

 
Anterior vs. Posterior Pituitary Hormones (image)

 
Brachial Plexus (image)

 
Brain Tumor Incidence In Children (image)

 
Broca's Aphasia (image)

 
Cranial Nerve Hemorrhages (image)

 
Cranial Nerves: Sensory, Motor, or Both (image)

 
Disdiadochokinesis (image)

 
Hand Dermatomes (image)

 
Hearing Loss In a Rock Band Member (image)

 
Horner's Syndrome (image)

 
Huntington's Chorea (image)

 
Hypothalamic Nuclei (image)

 
Lumbar Disc Herniation Affected Reflexes By Level (image)

 
Median Nerve Runs with Radial Artery (image)

 
Myasthenia Gravis_Eaton Lambert (image)

 
Ophthalmoparesis (image)

 
Spinothalamic Tract (image)

 
Superior vs. Inferior Brachial Plexus Injury (image)

 
Syphilis Treatment (image)

 
Ventricular System Of The Brain (image)

 
Voice Hoarseness (image)

 
Wernicke's Aphasia (image)

 
Cranial Nerve 1: Name (image)

 
Picture Mnemonics: Cranial Nerves
Mnemonics are tools for remembering concepts. They are useful in quickly learning and retaining concepts medical school. University of Hawaii medical student Adam Sprouse-Blum suggests that for visual learners, photographs containing cues to remember the...
 
Adam Sprouse-Blum's Picture Mnemonics
Mnemonics are tools for remembering concepts. They are useful in quickly learning and retaining concepts medical school. University of Hawaii medical student Adam Sprouse-Blum suggests that for visual learners, photographs containing cues to remember the...
 
Abductor Digiti Quinti Pedis (video)

 
Primitive Reflexes - The Galant Reflex
GALANT REFLEXClick Here to See the First VideoClick Here to See the Second Video Test: This is also known as the trunk incurvation test.  In the video, the examiner holds the baby by the belly, with the anterior aspect of the infant's body facing the floor...
 
Primitive Reflexes - The Moro Reflex
MORO REFLEXClick Here to See the VideoTest: reflex is best elicited when infant is startled - loud noises, sudden flashes of light, or changes in vestibular position can stimulate this reflex. In the video, you can see the examiner holds the baby off the ground,...
 
Primitive Reflexes - The Rooting Reflex
ROOTING REFLEXClick Here to See the VideoTest:  This is a sensory reflex, which occurs when an infant responds to stimulation on around the mouth.  In the video, you can see the examiner stroke the baby on the perioral area.Normal response:  The infant will...
 
Primitive Reflexes - The Foot Grasp Reflex
FOOT GRASP REFLEXClick Here to See the VideoTest: Pressure on the sole of the foot elicits this reflex.  In video, you can see the examiner place his finger just under the toes of the infant and apply pressure.Normal response: The infant's toes flex, or grasp...
 
Primitive Reflexes - The Plantar Reflex
THE PLANTAR REFLEX Click Here to See the Video Test: This is also known as the Babinski reflex. It is best evoked by a specific stimulation of the soles of the feet with a sharp object (like the end of a reflex hammer or a fingernail). In the video, you...
 
Primitive Reflexes - The Hand Grasp Reflex
HAND GRASP REFLEXClick Here to See the VideoTest: The hand grasp reflex occurs when pressure is applied to the infant's palm.  In the video, you can see the examiner's finger press on the palm of the infant. Normal response: The infant's fingers will flex, or grasp the examiner's finger...
 
Primitive Reflexes - Closing Remarks
IN CLOSINGThe long-term prognosis of an infant does not always correlate to the neurologic exam.  It's important to remember that these reflexes can vary with the examiner's experience as well as the alertness of the infant. To determine an abnormal...
 
Primitive Reflexes
Welcome.This is a mini-course written by Lizzy Freeman, M.S. III, and J. Douglas Miles, M.D., Ph.D. , and Dr. Mitzi Payne, all from Marshall University in West Virginia.  This mini-course is a brief tutorial on the primitive reflexes - those reflexes which...
 
Primitive Reflexes - General Information
GENERAL INFORMATIONPrimitive reflexes occur in infants before their cerebral cortex is fully mature. These reflexes arise from the spinal cord and brainstem. They are present at birth, and recede as the brain develops. Eventually the descending inhibitory...
 
Marshall iPED Conference Presentation
 Creating Web-Based Teaching and Testing Materials and Integrating Them with Classroom-Based Face-To-Face Learning J. Douglas Miles, M.D., Ph.D.  What we'll discuss:Different types of web-based teaching resources on FrontalCortex.comPersonal experiences...
 
Post-test for iPED Conference presentation on web-based and face-to-face teaching
Please click begin quiz below.
 
Example Multiple Choice Question 3
459
 
Example Multiple Choice Question 2
460
 
Example Multiple Choice Question 1
458
 
Pre-test for iPED Conference presentation on web-based and face-to-face teaching
Please click begin quiz below.
 
Assessments
 Informal Assessments How well does this learner know the material  You can get an estimate of a learner’s knowledge base by their discussion of an image or short video.You can get an idea of their interest by the questions they pose.  Mixing with Face-to-Face...
 
Online courses
On FrontalCortex.com, you can create a collection of multimedia resources organized into a coherent structure focused on one topic.This is considered an online course. An example of this is the neuropathology course, or the EMG course. Mixing with Face-to-Face...
 
Learning modules
Here, we are defining a learning module as a combination of:Pre-testFlash-based lecture or other multimedia teaching materialPost-testExample Mixing with Face-to-Face Learning Limited by duration of moduleVery brief modules:  silly to have pre-test & post-testLonger...
 
Types of Teaching Resources on FrontalCortex.com
Think of FrontalCortex as a repository of resources that can help you learn or teach neurology.  By resources, we mean things like pages of hypertext, pictures, videos, multiple-choice questions, and so forth.Here's a list of the types of resources you...
 
Closing comments
Summary:e-Learning Can WorkIt requires a lot of energy inputSome applications are still better on paperShorter and simpler is gooder. Future Directions:Endless need to fix bugs and improve the user interfaceMore content onlineTaylor content to demand/needBetter...
 
Pages of Text or HTML with images
This kind of resource is more or less what you've been reading this presentation on: hypertext pages wihch mix text, hyperlinks, images and interactive images.Dr. Mark Cohen's lecture on Parkinsonian neurodegenerative diseases is a much stronger example...
 
Recorded Lectures and Flash Presentations
At this time, FrontalCortex.com has at least a dozen full-length lectures, featuring slides, recorded voice, and some basic user interactive features (Skip ahead, go back, etc).Great deal of interest from some medical instructors.  In residency programs, rarely...
 
Videos
Videos are very good for quickly conveying a lot of information, especially about movements.For example, this is the Babinski response: Teaching how to perform electromyography.  Mixing with Face-to-Face LearningDiscussing a topicShow appropriate videoAsk...
 
Moving Images
Sometimes, a brief movie showing something in motion tells the learner a whole lot more than can be easily expressed in words or in a still image.Some topics are not easily describedConcepts involving movements are hard to express in a still photograph.One option: pantomime...
 
Finger-nose-finger - Intention (image)

 
Finger-nose-finger - Parkinson (image)

 
Finger-nose-finger - Normal (image)

 
Interactive Images
Sometimes, it is helpful to have extra information pop up when you mouse-over an image.This makes the content more interactive, and hopefully, allows the learner to try to determine for himself/herself what an image shows before revealing the answers. Some...
 
Pseudopalisading Necrosis (image)

 
Basal Ganglia Coronal Close Up - Internal Capsule (image)

 
MRI Wernicke with Arrows MRI Wernicke with Arrows (image)

 
Interactive Images (image)

 
Interactive Images (image)

 
Adding Unnecessarily Large Green Arrows
Sometimes, you want to draw someone's attention to a specific detail in an image.  To save you some time, FrontalCortex.com has a built-in routine for adding Unnecessarily Large Green Arrows to images.To demonstrate, click this thumbnail:                                           NEXT ITEM  
 
Bear with arrow (image)

 
Bear with arrow (image)

 
Images
A picture paints a thousand words.Sometimes, it's just very helpful to be able to show someone a picture of what you're talking about.  For example, this is what a glioblastoma multiforme looks like on MRI:  Or, here is a map of the Ohio river valley:  FrontalCortex...
 
Thalamus Coronal (image)

 
Circle of Willis (image)

 
Circle of Willis (image)

 
Stroke Pie Chart (image)

 
Map of Ohio River Basin (image)

 
GBM (image)

 
Multiple Choice Questions
Dynamic Questions are great, but labor-intensive and require special expertise to create.However, simpler Multiple Choice Questions can be generated on FrontalCortex.com.“Static” QuestionsOrder of answers randomized each timeAdditional ability...
 
Example Multiple Choice Question
120
 
Dynamic Questions
Dynamic Questions are how FrontalCortex.com started.I was studying for board exams, doing practice multiple-choice questions (MCQs) in a big book.  If I missed a question, I'd mark it.  I'd study the concept the question was testing, and some time...
 
FrontalCortex.com User Tutorials
Welcome to FrontalCortex.com.This website is a free resource for residents, medical students, electrodiagnostic technologists, and others interested in studying topics in neurology. This is a very useful site.  It may help you to know a little more about it...
 
Combinations of various resources
combos
 
Uploading New Videos
Videos are good
 
A Typical Medical Student Teaching Encounter
In the outpatient clinic setting, medical student teaching often follows the following chain of events:See a patient with a medical studentDiscuss the patientPrompt student for questionsIf no questions, ask questions of him/herIdentify topics where knowledge...
 
About FrontalCortex.com
Disclaimer:  FrontalCortex.com is my website. Not For Profit: Well, it was my website. Now, it's owned and operated by FrontalCortex, Inc., a non-profit organization. I am the president of that corporation, but I do not receive any proceeds from the site...
 
Frequently Asked Questions
test
 
What kinds of resources can I find on FrontalCortex.com?
Think of FrontalCortex as a repository of resources that can help you learn or teach neurology.  By resources, we mean things like pages of hypertext, pictures, videos, multiple-choice questions, and so forth.Some people are looking for resources, so they...
 
What is FrontalCortex.com?
What is FrontalCortex.com
 
Peripheral Nervous System and Physical Exam Findings
This is a brief module, geared towards medical students, describing basic differences between the peripheral nervous system from the central nervous system, and describing physical exam finidngs which can help localize a disease process into one or the other...
 
Post-test for Peripheral Nervous System and Physical Exam Findings module.
Please answer all 6 questions after viewing the video. You will only be able to take this quiz once.  Once you have started it, you may go through it as many times as you want, and change your answers.  To submit your answers and receive your final score,...
 
Post-test for Peripheral Nervous System and Physical Exam, Question #1
455
 
Post-test for Peripheral Nervous System and Physical Exam, Question #2
457
 
Post-test for Peripheral Nervous System and Physical Exam, Question #3
453
 
Post-test for Peripheral Nervous System and Physical Exam, Question #4
456
 
Post-test for Peripheral Nervous System and Physical Exam, Question #5
454
 
Post-test for Peripheral Nervous System and Physical Exam, Question #6
452
 
Pre-test for Peripheral Nervous System and Physical Exam Findings module.
Please answer all 6 questions prior to viewing the video. You will only be able to take this quiz once.  Once you have started it, you may go through it as many times as you want, and change your answers.  To submit your answers and receive your final score,...
 
Pre-test for Peripheral Nervous System and Physical Exam, Question #6
452
 
Pre-test for Peripheral Nervous System and Physical Exam, Question #5
454
 
Pre-test for Peripheral Nervous System and Physical Exam, Question #4
456
 
Pre-test for Peripheral Nervous System and Physical Exam, Question #3
453
 
Pre-test for Peripheral Nervous System and Physical Exam, Question #2
457
 
Pre-test for Peripheral Nervous System and Physical Exam, Question #1
455
 
Peripheral Nervous System and Physical Exam Findings (video)

 
Topics in Basic Neurology
This course will feature several resources on the basics of neurology, at the level appropriate for a medical student.  A brief tutorial on primitive reflexes can be found here.  A brief module on the peripheral nervous system and the physical exam has recently been added.
 
Neuron - Soma (image)

 
S1
The muscles that are bolded below are prodiminanty S1 innervated. abductor digiti quinti pedisabductor hallucis brevisbiceps femoris - long headbiceps femoris - short headextensor hallucis longusflexor digitorum longusgastrocnemius - lateral headgastrocnemius...
 
Galant 2 (video)

 
Hand Grasp Reflex (video)

 
C6
Spinal Root: C6Muscles Innervated:    anconeus **    biceps brachii*    deltoid *    brachioradialis *    deltoid *    extensor carpi radialis longus    flexor carpi radialis **    Infraspinatous *    pronator teres **    triceps ** ***    supinator     Supraspinatus...
 
C5
Spinal Root: C5Muscles Innervated:    Supraspinatus *    Infraspinatous *    Rhomboids    biceps brachii *    brachioradialis *    deltoid   *    extensor carpi radialis longus ** Please note, that these muscles along cannot differentiate a C5 radiculopathy from a C6 radiculopathy...
 
Upper Extremity
    abductor digiti minimi    abductor pollicis brevis    anconeus    biceps brachii       brachioradialis    deltoid    extensor carpi radialis longus    extensor carpi ulnaris    extensor digitorum    extensor indicis    extensor pollicis longus    extensor...
 
Intracerebral Hemorrhage (video)

 
Acute Cerebral Ischemia (video)

 
Basic Neuropathologic Reactions
Among the resources in this section are 5 lectures providing an overview of the basic cells of the nervous system, and their reactions to damage. For those who would prefer to read than listen:The typical neuron is pyramidal or triangular-shaped with a large,...
 
Nerve Conduction Studies for Electrodiagnostic Technologists
A searchable, illustrated tutorial for nerve conduction studies, by Steven Arbogat, D.O., and J. Douglas Miles, M.D., Ph.D.This tutorial covers a wide array of nerve conduction studies (NCS). We have attempted to organize the tutorial in a logical approach...
 
Digit 1 median-radial comparison study (video)

 
Radial Motor NCS, Recording the Extenor Digitorum Communis (EDC), stimulating proximal to Spiral Groove (image)

 
Radial Motor NCS, Recording the Extenor Digitorum Communis (EDC), stimulating distal to Spiral Groove (image)

 
Radial Motor NCS, Recording the Extenor Digitorum Communis (EDC), stimulating distal to Spiral Groove (image)

 
Upper Extremity Nerve Conduction Studies
MotorAxillary Motor Nerve - recording the Deltoid  Median and Ulnar motor nerves- Recording the 2nd Lumbrical and interossei Median Motor Study - Recording the Abductor Pollicis Brevis Musculocutaneous Motor Nerve - recording the Biceps  Radial Motor Nerve...
 
Motor Nerve Conduction Studies
Axillary Axillary Motor Nerve - recording the DeltoidFacial Facial Motor Nerve – recording the Orbicularis OculiFemoralFemoral Motor Nerve - recording the Rectus FemorisMedian Median Palmar Mixed Nerve (orthodromic) Median Motor Study - Recording the...
 
Radial Motor Nerve Conduction Study, recording Extensor Indicis Proprius, stimulating Proximal to Spiral Groove (image)

 
Radial Motor Nerve - Recording the Extenor Indicis Proprius (EIP)
Origin:  C7-C8 roots, middle and lower trunk and posterior cord of the brachial plexus, radial nerve.Recording Site:  Extensor Indicis Proprius muscle (EIP)Reference Site:  Dorsal and medial wrist, near the styloid process of the ulnaGround:  Posterior forearmStimulation...
 
Radial Motor NCS, Recording the Extenor Indicis Proprius (EIP), stimulating below groove (A) (image)

 
Radial Motor NCS, Recording the Extenor Indicis Proprius (EIP), stimulating below groove (B) (image)

 
Diagram of segmental distribution of the cutaneous nerves of the right upper extremity. Anterior view. (image)

 
Median Sensory Nerve Conduction Study, recording the index finger (antidromic) (image)

 
Nerves of the left upper extremity. (image)

 
Anatomy of the Distal Median Nerve (image)

 
Median Motor Nerve Conduction Study, Recording Abductor Pollicis Brevis, Stimulating at the Wrist (image)

 
Erb's Point (image)

 
Median Motor Nerve Conduction Study - Recording Abductor Pollicis Brevis, Stimulating at Axilla (image)

 
Median Motor Nerve Conduction Study - Recording Abductor Pollicis Brevis, Stimulating at Elbow (image)

 
Median Motor Nerve Conduction Study - Recording Abductor Pollicis Brevis, Stimulating at Wrist (image)

 
Musculocutaneous Motor Nerve Conduction Study - recording the Biceps, Stimulating at Erb's point (image)

 
Musculocutaneous Motor Nerve Conduction Study - recording the Biceps, Stimulating at Erb's point (image)

 
Musculocutaneous Motor Nerve Conduction Study - recording the Biceps, Stimulating at Erb's point (image)

 
Musculocutaneous Motor Nerve Conduction Study - recording the Biceps, Stimulating at Axilla (image)

 
Musculocutaneous Motor Nerve Conduction Study - recording the Biceps, Stimulating at Axilla (image)

 
Radial Sensory Nerve Conduction Study (antidromic) (image)

 
Ulnar Sensory Nerve Conduction Study (antidromic) (image)

 
Ulnar Motor Nerve - Recording the Abductor Digiti Minimi (ADM), stimulating at axilla (image)

 
Ulnar Motor Nerve - Recording the Abductor Digiti Minimi (ADM), stimulating at axilla (image)

 
Ulnar Motor Nerve - Recording the Abductor Digiti Minimi (ADM), stimulating at Erb's point (image)

 
Ulnar Motor Nerve - Recording the Abductor Digiti Minimi (ADM), stimulating at Erb's point (image)

 
Ulnar Motor Nerve - Recording the Abductor Digiti Minimi (ADM), stimulating at Erb's point (image)

 
Ulnar Motor Nerve - Recording the Abductor Digiti Minimi (ADM), stimulating at Erb's point (image)

 
Ulnar Motor Nerve - Recording the Abductor Digiti Minimi (ADM), stimulating proximal to elbow (image)

 
Ulnar Motor Nerve - Recording the Abductor Digiti Minimi (ADM), stimulating distal to elbow (image)

 
Ulnar Motor Nerve - Recording the Abductor Digiti Minimi (ADM), stimulating distal to elbow (image)

 
Ulnar Motor Nerve - Recording the Abductor Digiti Minimi (ADM), stimulating at wrist (image)

 
For Comparison, Radial Sensory Nerve Conduction Study - Recording the thumb (antidromic) (image)

 
Median Sensory Nerve Conduction Study - Recording the thumb (antidromic) (image)

 
Median Sensory Nerve - Recording the ring finger (antidromic) (image)

 
Ulnar Sensory Nerve - Recording the ring finger (antidromic) (image)

 
Ulnar Palmar Mixed Nerve (orthodromic) (image)

 
Median Palmar Mixed Nerve (orthodromic) (image)

 
Phrenic Motor Nerve Conduction Study (image)

 
Phrenic Motor Nerve Conduction Study (image)

 
Phrenic Motor Nerve Conduction Study (image)

 
Special Studies
Blink Blink Reflexes – recording the Orbicularis OculiF-waves F-WavesFacial Facial Motor Nerve – recording the Orbicularis OculiH-ReflexH-Reflex - recording the SoleusPhrenic Motor StudyPhrenic Motor Nerve Conduction StudyRepetitive Stimulation...
 
Phrenic Motor Nerve Conduction Study
The phrenic study.
 
Spinal Accessory Motor Nerve - recording the Trapezius (image)

 
Spinal Accessory Motor Nerve - recording the Trapezius (image)

 
Spinal Accessory Motor Nerve - recording the Trapezius (image)

 
Radial Motor NCS, Recording the Extenor Digitorum Communis (EDC), stimulating at elbow (image)

 
Radial Motor NCS, Placement of electrodes on EDC (image)

 
Median-Ulnar 2nd Lumbrical-Interosseous Comparison Study 02 (image)

 
Median-Ulnar 2nd Lumbrical-Interosseous Comparison Study 01 (image)

 
Median-Ulnar 2nd Lumbrical-Interosseous Comparison Study 02 (image)

 
Median-Ulnar 2nd Lumbrical-Interosseous Comparison Study 01 (image)

 
NCS Median wrist-palm segmental study 2 (image)

 
NCS Median wrist-palm segmental study (image)

 
NCS Axillary Nerve Erb's point (image)

 
Question #3
420
 
Sample Quiz
You will only be able to take this quiz once.  Once you have started it, you may go through it as many times as you want, and change your answers.  To submit your answers and receive your final score, click the link that says Click here to finalize and submit your answers...
 
Mini-Courses and Quizzes for Continuing Education
This is a trial run of a system which may soon be usable for continuing education credits through the AAET.Final approval is still pending.To take a course, click on the link below.  When you are finished reviewing the educational material, take the quiz. ...
 
Nerve Conduction Studies (NCS) Tutorial
All Nerves   Upper Extremity Nerve Conduction Studies Lower Extremity Nerve Conductions  Motor Nerve Conduction Studies Sensory Nerves  Special Studies      These are studies not performed on a regular basis, including facial motor responses, repetitive nerve...
 
Lateral Femoral Cutaneous Sensory Nerve – Anatomy (image)

 
Cutaneous nerves of the right lower extremity. (image)

 
Medial and Lateral Plantar Mixed Nerves (orthodromic) (image)

 
Peroneal Motor Nerve - recording the Extensor Digitorum Brevis (image)

 
Peroneal Motor Nerve - recording the Tibialis Anterior (image)

 
Tibial Motor Nerve - recording the Abductor Hallucis (image)

 
Tibial Motor Nerve - recording the Abductor Digiti Quinti Pedis (image)

 
Femoral Motor Nerve - recording the Rectus Femoris. (image)

 
Femoral Nerve - Anatomy (image)

 
Lumbar Plexus (image)

 
Lumbar Plexus diagram. (image)

 
H-Reflex - recording the Soleus (image)

 
Facial Motor Nerve – recording the Orbicularis Oculi (image)

 
Facial Nerve (image)

 
Blink Reflexes – recording the Orbicularis Oculi (image)

 
Median Sensory Study to Index (image)

 
Distal Median Nerve Anatomy (image)

 
Superfical nerves of the hand. (image)

 
Saphenous Nerve – Sensory distribution with arrow (image)

 
Median Sensory Nerve - Recording the index finger (antidromic)
Origin:  C6-C7 roots, upper and middle trunk and lateral cord of the brachial plexus, median nerveRecording Site:  Index fingerReference Site:  Index fingerGround:  Palm or top of handStimulation Site:  WristProcedure:  The recording electrode is placed on the proximal phalanx of the index finger...
 
Median Sensory Nerve - Recording the middle finger (antidromic)
Median Sensory Nerve - middle (antidromic)Origin:  C7 root, middle trunk and lateral cord of the brachial plexus, median nerveRecording Site:  Middle fingerReference Site:  Middle fingerGround:  Palm or top of handStimulation Site:  WristProcedure:  The recording...
 
Median Sensory Nerve - Recording the thumb (antidromic)
Origin:  C6-C7 root, upper and middle trunk and lateral cord of the brachial plexus, median nerve.Recording Site:  ThumbReference Site:  ThumbGround:  Palm or top of handStimulation Site:  WristProcedure:  The recording electrode is placed on the proximal phalanx of the thumb...
 
Ulnar Sensory Nerve - Recording the little finger (antidromic)
Origin:  C8 root, lower trunk and lateral cord of the brachial plexus, ulnar nerveRecording Site:  Little fingerReference Site:  Little fingerGround:  Palm or top of handStimulation Site:  Wrist Procedure:  The recording electrode is placed on the proximal phalange of the little finger...
 
Dorsal Ulnar Sensory Nerve (antidromic)
Origin:  C8 root, lower trunk and medial cord of the brachial plexusRecording Site:  Top of handReference Site:  Base of 5th fingerGround:  Top of HandStimulation Site:  WristProcedure:  The recording electrode is placed on the dorsum of the hand at the bottom...
 
Radial Sensory Nerve (antidromic)
Origin:  C6-C7 roots, upper or middle trunk and posterior cord of the brachial plexus, radial nerveRecording Site:  Base of the FDI web space between the index finger and thumbReference Site:  Base of thumbGround:  Palm or top of handStimulation Site:  Radius...
 
Median Sensory Nerve - Recording the ring finger (antidromic)
Origin:  C7 roots, middle trunk and lateral cord of the brachial plexus.Recording Site: Ring FingerReference Site:  Ring FingerGround:  Palm or top of handStimulation Site:  Wrist Procedure:  The recording electrode is placed on the proximal phalanx of the ring finger...
 
Ulnar Sensory Nerve - Recording the ring finger (antidromic)
Origin:  C8 root, lower trunk and lateral cord of the brachial plexus.Recording Site:  Ring fingerReference Site:  Ring fingerGround:  Palm or top of handStimulation Site:  WristProcedure:  The recording electrode is placed on the proximal phalange of the fourth finger...
 
Median Palmar Mixed Nerve (orthodromic)
Recording Site:  Wrist over median nerve (bar electrode)Reference Site:  Wrist over median nerve (bar electrode)Ground:  Top of handStimulation Site:  Palm, between the 2nd and 3rd metacarpal bones.Procedure:  The recording and reference electrodes (bar electrode)...
 
Ulnar Palmar Mixed Nerve (orthodromic)
Recording Site:  Wrist over the ulnar nerve (bar electrode)Reference Site:  Wrist over the ulnar nerve (bar electrode)Ground:  Top of handStimulation Site:  Palm, between the 4th and 5th metacarpal bones.Procedure:  The recording and reference electrodes (bar...
 
Lateral Antebrachial Cutaneous Sensory Nerve (antidromic)
Origin:  C6 root, upper trunk and lateral cord of the brachial plexus,       Musculocutaneous nerveRecording Site:  Forearm (bar electrode)Reference Site:  Forearm (bar electrode)Ground:  ForearmStimulation Site:  ElbowProcedure:  The recording and reference...
 
Medial Antebrachial Cutaneous Sensory Nerve - Forearm (antidromic)
Origin:  C8-T1 root, lower trunk and medial cord of the brachial plexusRecording Site:  Forearm (bar electrode)Reference Site:  Forearm (bar electrode)Ground:  ForearmStimulation Site:  ElbowProcedure:  The recording and reference electrodes (bar electrode)...
 
Sensory Nerves
Lateral Antebrachial CutaneousLateral Antebrachial Cutaneous Sensory Nerve - Forearm(antidromic) Lateral Femoral Cutaneous Lateral Femoral Cutaneous Sensory Nerve – recording the lateral thigh (antidromic)Medial Antebrachia; Cutaneous Medial Antebrachial...
 
Lower Extremity Nerve Conductions
SensoryLateral Femoral Cutaneous Sensory Nerve – recording the lateral thigh (antidromic)Saphenous Sensory Nerve – recording anterior to the Medial Malleolus (antidromic)Superficial Peroneal Sensory Nerve - recording anterior to the Lateral Malleolus...
 
All Nerves
A list of all nerves commonly tested in alphabetic order.Axillary Axillary Motor Nerve - recording the DeltoidBlink Blink Reflexes – recording the Orbicularis OculiF-waves F-WavesFacial Facial Motor Nerve – recording the Orbicularis OculiFemoralFemoral...
 
Median Motor Study - Recording the Abductor Pollicis Brevis
Origin:  C8-T1 roots, lower trunk and medial cord of the brachial plexus, median nerve.Recording Site:  Abductor Pollicis Brevis muscle (APB)Reference Site:  Base of thumbGround:  Palm or top of handStimulation Sites:  Wrist and elbowProcedure:  The recording...
 
Ulnar Motor Nerve - Recording the Abductor Digiti Minimi (ADM)
Origin:  C8-T1 roots, lower trunk and medial cord of the brachial plexus, ulnar nerveRecording Site:  Abductor Digiti Minimi muscle (ADM)Reference Site:  Base of little fingerGround:  Palm or top of handStimulation Sites:  Wrist, below elbow and above elbow...
 
Ulnar Motor Nerve - Recording the First Dorsal Interosseous (FDI)
Origin:  C8-T1 roots, lower trunk and medial cord of the brachial plexus, ulnar nerveRecording Site:  First Dorsal Interosseous (FDI or 1st DI)Reference Site:  Base of thumbGround:  Palm or Top of HandStimulation Site:  Wrist, below elbow and above elbow.Procedure: ...
 
Median and Ulnar motor nerves- Recording the 2nd Lumbrical and interossei
Origin:    Median – C8-T1 roots, lower trunk and medial cord of the brachial plexus, median nerve.Ulnar – C8-T1 roots, lower trunk and medial cord of the brachial plexus, ulnar nerve.Recording Site:  Palm, between the 2nd and 3rd metacarpal bones...
 
Radial Motor Nerve - Recording the Extenor Digitorum Communis (EDC)
Origin:  C7-C8 roots, middle and lower trunk and posterior cord of the brachial plexus, radial nerve.Recording Site:  Extensor Digitorum Communis muscle (EDC)Reference Site:  Above the wristGround:  Medial forearmStimulation Sites:  Elbow and arm (below and...
 
Musculocutaneous Motor Nerve - recording the Biceps
Origin:  C5-6 roots, upper trunk and lateral cord of the brachial plexus, Musculocutaneous nerve.Recording Site:  Biceps muscleReference Site:  Distal upper armGround:  Upper armStimulation Site:  Axilla and Erb’s point.Procedure:  The recording electrode...
 
Musculocutaneous Motor Nerve - recording the Biceps
Upper ExtremityLower Extremity Motor NervesSensory Nerves All NervesSpecial Studies
 
Axillary Motor Nerve - recording the Deltoid
Origin:  C5-6 roots, upper trunk and posterior cord of the brachial plexus, axillary nerve.Recording Site:  Deltoid muscleReference Site:  Distal upper armGround:  ShoulderStimulation Sites:  Erb’s PointProcedure:  The recording electrode is placed over...
 
Spinal Accessory Motor Nerve - recording the Trapezius
Origin:  C2-C4 roots, cervical plexus, spinal accessory nerve.Recording Site:  TrapeziusReference Site:  ShoulderGround:  Upper backStimulation Site:  Posterior neckProcedure:  The recording electrode is placed on the belly of the trapezius muscle.  The reference...
 
Sural Sensory Nerve - recording behind the Lateral Malleolus (antidromic)
Sural Sensory Nerve (antidromic)Origin:  S1 root, sacral plexus, sciatic nerve, tibial nerve.Recording Site:  Lateral MalleolusReference Site:  Side of the footGround:  Top of footStimulation Site:  Back of lower legProcedure:  The patient should be lying...
 
Superficial Peroneal Sensory Nerve - recording anterior to the Lateral Malleolus (antidromic)
Origin:  L5 root, sacral plexus, sciatic nerve, peroneal nerve.Recording Site:  Lateral lower leg (bar electrode)Reference Site:  Lateral lower leg (bar electrode)Ground:  Medial lower legStimulation:  Lateral lower legProcedure:  The recording and reference...
 
Saphenous Sensory Nerve – recording anterior to the Medial Malleolus (antidromic)
Origin:  L3-4 roots, lumbar plexus, femoral nerveRecording Site:  Lower calf at ankle (bar electrode)Reference Site:  Lower calf at ankle (bar electrode)Ground:  Lower legStimulation Site:  CalfProcedure:  The recording and reference electrodes (bar electrode)...
 
Lateral Femoral Cutaneous Sensory Nerve - recording the lateral thigh (antidromic)
Origin:  L2-3 roots, lumbar plexusRecording Site:  Anterolateral thigh (bar electrode)Reference Site:  Thigh (bar electrode)Ground Site:  ThighStimulation Site:  Iliac crestProcedure:  The recording and reference electrodes (bar electrode) is placed 12cm down from the iliac crest...
 
Medial and Lateral Plantar Mixed Nerves (orthodromic)
Medial and Lateral Plantar Mixed Nerves (orthodromic)Origin:  S1 root, sacral plexus, sciatic nerve, tibial nerveRecording Site:  Ankle (bar electrode)Reference Site:  Ankle (bar electrode)Ground:  Top of footStimulation Site:                Medial foot (medial...
 
Peroneal Motor Nerve - recording the Extensor Digitorum Brevis
Origin:  L5-S1 roots, sacral plexus, sciatic nerve, peroneal nerveRecording Site:  Extensor Digitorum Brevis muscle (EDB)Reference Site:  Top of foot below the 4th and 5th toesGround:  Top of footStimulation Sites:  Ankle, below fibular neck and kneeProcedure: ...
 
Peroneal Motor Nerve - recording the Tibialis Anterior
Origin:  L4-L5 roots, sacral plexus, sciatic nerve, peroneal nerveRecording Site:  Tibialis Anterior muscle (TA)Reference Site:  Top of AnkleGround:  Medial lower legStimulation Sites:  Below the fibular head and kneeProcedure:  The recording electrode is placed over the belly of the TA...
 
Tibial Motor Nerve - recording the Abductor Hallucis
Origin:  S1-S2 roots, sacral plexus, sciatic nerve, tibial nerve.Recording Site:  Abductor Hallucis muscle (AH)Reference Site:  Base of big toeGround:  Top of footStimulation Sites:  Ankle and kneeProcedure:  The recording electrode is placed over the belly of the AH...
 
Tibial Motor Nerve - recording the Abductor Digiti Quinti Pedis
Origin:  S1-S2 roots, sacral plexus, sciatic nerve, tibial nerveRecording Site:  Abductor Digiti Quinti Pedis muscle (ADQP)Reference Site:  Top of foot below 5th toeGround:  Top of footStimulation Site:  Ankle Procedure:  The recording electrode is placed over the belly of the ADQP...
 
Femoral Motor Nerve - recording the Rectus Femoris.
Origin:  L2-L4 roots, lumbar plexus, femoral nerveRecording Site:  Rectus Femoris muscle (Rec Fem)Reference Site:  Distal thighGround:  Medial thighStimulation Site:  GroinProcedure:  The recording electrode is placed over the belly of the Rec Fem.  The reference...
 
H-Reflex - recording the Soleus
Origin:  S1, sacral plexus, sciatic nerve, tibial nerve.Recording Site:  Soleus Reference Site:  Achilles tendon, just above the ankleGround:  Back of leg, halfway between the knee and recording site Procedure:  The patient should be placed in the prone position...
 
Facial Motor Nerve – recording the Orbicularis Oculi
Origin:  Brainstem facial nucleus, facial nerveRecording Site:  Orbicularis OculiReference Site:  Outer canthusGround:  ForeheadStimulation Site:  Front of Lower ear.Procedure:  The recording electrode is placed over the orbicularis oculi muscles, midpoint, just below the lower lid...
 
Blink Reflexes – recording the Orbicularis Oculi
Origin:  Brainstem nuclei, facial nerves, trigeminal nervesRecording Site:  Orbicularis OculiReference Site:  Lateral orbit or side of noseGround:  ForeheadStimulation Site:  Supraorbital notchProcedure:  The recording electrode is placed over the orbicularis oculi...
 
F-Waves
The most common routine F-wave responses are recorded from the Median (APB), Ulnar (ADM), Peroneal (EDB) and the Tibial (AH) motor nerves.  However, F-waves can be recorded from any motor nerve.  F-waves vary in amplitude and latency and may not be recorded following every stimulation...
 
Repetitive Nerve Stimulation for Myasthenia Gravis (post-synaptic neuromuscular junction defect)
The most common slow repetitive stimulation studies are recorded from the  Median (APB), Ulnar (ADM), Spinal Accessory (Trapezius) and the Facial (Orbicularis Oculi) motor nerves.  However, myasthenia gravis repetitive stimulation studies can be performed on any motor point...
 
Repetitive Stimulation for Lambert-Eaton Syndrome (pre-synaptic neuromuscular junction defect)
The most common rapid repetitive stimulation studies are recorded from the Median (APB) or Ulnar (ADM) motor nerves.  However, rapid repetitive stimulation studies can be performed on any motor nerve.After performing the routine motor nerve conduction study...
 
Normal Value Disclaimer
Please be awere that each lab may have its own normal values. These can vary based upon age, temperature, technique and equipment.Age generally leads to a lower amplitude and a prolonged distal latency.  Temperature has significant effects on nerve conduction studies...
 
Median Sensory Study to Index (image)

 
Deep anatomy of the right hand (image)

 
Superfical anatomy of the right hand. (image)

 
Median Sensory Nerve - middle (antidromic) (image)

 
Superfical anatomy of the right hand. (image)

 
Deep anatomy of the right hand (image)

 
Median Sensory Nerve – thumb (antidromic (image)

 
Deep anatomy of the right hand (image)

 
Superfical anatomy of the right hand. (image)

 
Ulnar Sensory Nerve (antidromic) (image)

 
Superficial Anatomy of the Right Hand (image)

 
Radial Sensory Nerve (antidromic) (image)

 
Median Sensory Nerve - Ring Finger (antidromic) (image)

 
Superfical nerves of the hand. (image)

 
Deep anatomy of the right hand (image)

 
Ulnar Sensory Nerve – Ring Finger (antidromic) (image)

 
Median Palmar Mixed Nerve (orthodromic) (image)

 
Ulnar Palmar Mixed Nerve (orthodromic) (image)

 
Lateral Antebrachial Cutaneous Sensory Nerve (antidromic) (image)

 
Lateral Antebrachial Cutaneous Sensory Nerve (image)

 
Brachial Plexus (image)

 
Medial Antebrachial Cutaneous Sensory Nerve – Forearm (antidromic) (image)

 
Question on Upper Extremity Nerve Conduction Study normal values
425
 
Median Motor Study - Recording the Abductor Pollicis Brevis (image)

 
Ulnar Motor Nerve - Recording the Abductor Digiti Minimi (ADM) (image)

 
Ulnar Motor Nerve - Recording the First Dorsal Interosseous (FDI) (image)

 
Median and Ulnar motor nerves- Recording the 2nd Lumbrical and interossei (image)

 
Radial Motor Nerve - Recording the Extenor Digitorum Communis (EDC) (image)

 
Musculocutaneous Motor Nerve - recording the Biceps (image)

 
Axillary Motor Nerve - recording the Deltoid (image)

 
Axillary Motor Nerve - Anatomy (image)

 
Brachial Plexus (image)

 
Anterior view of the cutaneous nerves of the upper extremity. (image)

 
Spinal Accessory Motor Nerve - recording the Trapezius (image)

 
Sural Sensory Nerve - recording behind the Lateral Malleolus (antidromic) (image)

 
Superficial Peroneal Sensory Nerve - recording anterior to the Lateral Malleolus (antidromic) (image)

 
Saphenous Sensory Nerve – recording anterior to the Medial Malleolus (antidromic)
Origin:  L3-4 roots, lumbar plexus, femoral nerveRecording Site:  Lower calf at ankle (bar electrode)Reference Site:  Lower calf at ankle (bar electrode)Ground:  Lower legStimulation Site:  CalfProcedure:  The recording and reference electrodes (bar...
 
Saphenous Sensory Nerve – recording anterior to the Medial Malleolus (antidromic) (image)

 
Saphenous Nerve – Sensory distribution (image)

 
Lateral Femoral Cutaneous Sensory Nerve – recording the lateral thigh (antidromic) (image)

 
Lateral Femoral Cutaneous Sensory Nerve Anatomy (image)

 
Question on Upper Extremity Nerve Conduction Study normal values
425
 
Saphenous Nerve – Sensory distribution with arrow (image)

 
Saphenous Nerve – Sensory distribution (image)

 
Inienecephaly, dorsal view of fetus (image)

 
Polyglucosan body disease, intramuscular nerve twig, H&E stained x 400 (image)

 
Unstructured mini-core, electron micrograph (image)

 
Normal skeletal muscle, H&E stained section of paraffin embedded tissue x 100 (image)

 
Normal skeletal muscle, H&E stained frozen section x 100 (image)

 
Leukemic infiltration of peripheral nerve (image)

 
Normal skeletal muscle, ATPase stain x 100 (image)

 
Normal skeletal muscle, cytochrome oxidase stain x 100 (image)

 
All Muscles
Muscles:    abductor digiti minimi    abductor pollicis brevis    anconeus    biceps brachii    brachioradialis    cervical paraspinal muscles    deltoid     extensor carpi radialis longus     extensor carpi ulnaris    extensor digitorum    extensor indicis...
 
Semitendonosus
Muscle Name: semitendonosusAKA:  musculus semitendinosusAbbreviation: STSpinal Nerve Roots:    L4    L5    S1Plexus:    lumbosacral plexusNamed Nerves:    sciatic nerve (tibial division)Proximal Attachment:  ischial tuberosityDistal Attachment:  Medail surface...
 
Semimembranosus
Muscle Name: semimembranosusAKA:  musculus semimembranosusAbbreviation: SMSpinal Nerve Roots:    L4    L5    S1Plexus:    lumbosacral plexusNamed Nerves:    sciatic nerve (tibial division)Proximal Attachment:  Ischial tuberosityDistal Attachment:  Medail...
 
Rectus Femoris
Muscle Name: rectus femorisAKA:  Abbreviation: RFSpinal Nerve Roots:    L2    L3    L4Plexus:    lumbar plexusNamed Nerves:    femoral nerveProximal Attachment:  Anterior inferior iliac spine and the acetabulumDistal Attachment:  Patellar tendonAction: Knee...
 
Peroneus Longus
Muscle Name: peroneus longusAKA:  musculus peroneus longusAbbreviation: PLSpinal Nerve Roots:    L5    S1Plexus:    lumbosacral plexusNamed Nerves:    superficial peroneal nerve    common peroneal nerve    sciatic nerveProximal Attachment:  Distal Attachment: ...
 
Iliacus
Muscle Name: iliacusAKA:  musculus iliacusAbbreviation: IPSpinal Nerve Roots:    L2    L3    L4Plexus:    lumbar plexusNamed Nerves:    femoral nerveProximal Attachment:  Iliiac fossaDistal Attachment:  Lesser trochanter of the femurAction: Flexion of the...
 
Gluteus Maximus
Muscle Name: gluteus maximusAKA:  musculus gluteus maximusAbbreviation: GMAXSpinal Nerve Roots:    L5    S1    S2Plexus:    lumbosacral plexusNamed Nerves:    inferior gluteal nerveProximal Attachment:      Gluteal surface of ilium, lumbar fascia, sacrum,...
 
Gluteus Medius
Muscle Name: gluteus mediusAKA: musculus gluteus medius Abbreviation: GMEDSpinal Nerve Roots:    L4    L5    S1Plexus:    lumbosacral plexusNamed Nerves:    superior gluteal nerveProximal Attachment:  The gluteal surface of the ilium, deep to the gluteus maximus...
 
Gastrocnemius - Medial Head
Muscle Name: gastrocnemius - medial headAKA:  Abbreviation: MGSpinal Nerve Roots:    S1    S2Plexus:    lumbosacral plexusNamed Nerves:    tibial nerve    sciatic nerveProximal Attachment:  Medial condyle of the femur.Distal Attachment:  CalcaneusAction: Plantar flexes the foot and flexes the knee...
 
Gastrocnemius - Lateral Head
Muscle Name: gastrocnemius - lateral headAKA:  Abbreviation: LGSpinal Nerve Roots:    S1    S2Plexus:    lumbosacral plexusNamed Nerves:    tibial nerve    sciatic nerveProximal Attachment:  Lateral condyle of the femurDistal Attachment:  CalcaneusAction: Plantar flexes the foot and flexes the knee...
 
Flexor Digitorum Longus
Muscle Name: flexor digitorum longusAKA:  Abbreviation: FDLSpinal Nerve Roots:    L5    S1Plexus:    lumbosacral plexusNamed Nerves:    tibial nerve    sciatic nerveProximal Attachment:  Posterior surface of the tibia.Distal Attachment:  Base of the distal phalanges of digits 2, 3, 4 and 5...
 
Extensor Hallucis Longus
Muscle Name: extensor hallucis longusAKA:  musculus extensor hallucis longusAbbreviation: EHLSpinal Nerve Roots:    L4    L5    S1Plexus:    lumbosacral plexusNamed Nerves:    deep peroneal nerve    common peroneal nerve    sciatic nerveProximal Attachment: ...
 
Biceps Femoris - Short Head
Muscle Name: biceps femoris - short headAKA:  Abbreviation: BF-SHSpinal Nerve Roots:    L5    S1Plexus:    lumbosacral plexusNamed Nerves:    sciatic nerve (peroneal division)Proximal Attachment: Lateral edge of the linea aspera and the upper portion of the supracondylar line...
 
Biceps Femoris - Long Head
Muscle Name: biceps femoris - long headAKA:  musculus biceps femoris longusAbbreviation: BF-LHSpinal Nerve Roots:    L5    S1Plexus:    lumbosacral plexusNamed Nerves:    sciatic nerve (tibial division)Proximal Attachment:  ischial tuberosity and lenea aspera...
 
Adductor Longus
Muscle Name: adductor longusAKA:  Abbreviation: ALSpinal Nerve Roots:    L2    L3    L4Plexus:    lumbar plexusNamed Nerves:    obturator nerveProximal Attachment:  pubic crestDistal Attachment:  into the mid lenea aspera between the adductor magnus and the...
 
Clival chordoma, H&E stain x 400 (image)

 
Chordoma (clivus), H&E stain x 100 (image)

 
Non-neoplastic choroid plexus, H&E stain x 400 (image)

 
Choroid plexus papilloma, H&E stain x 400 (image)

 
Papillary tumor of the pineal region, H&E stain x 400 (image)

 
Meningioma, H&E stain x 200 (image)

 
Rosetted glioneuronal tumor of the fourth ventricle, low power view (image)

 
Rosetted glial neuronal tumor of the fourth ventricle, H&E x 200 (image)

 
Pilomyxoid astrocytoma, H&E stain x 400 (image)

 
Pilomyxoid astrocytoma, H&E stain x 200 (image)

 
Pilocytic astrocytoma, intraoperative smear preparation. (image)

 
Meningeal hemangiopericytoma (image)

 
Microcystic meningioma with adherent brain parenchymal tissue (image)

 
Homer Wright rosettes, synaptophysin immunohistochemical staining x 200 (image)

 
Angiocentric glioma, vimentin immunohistochemical staining (image)

 
Astroblastomatous rosettes, H&E stain X 600 (image)

 
Anaplastic giant cell ependymoma, H&E stain x 200 (image)

 
Amyloid beta related angiitis, H&E stained x 100 (image)

 
Amyloid beta related angiitis, H. and E. stain x 400 (image)

 
Anaplastic ependymoma, H&E x 400 (image)

 
Anaplastic ependymoma, microvascular proliferation. (image)

 
Named Nerves
    Axillary Nerve    Femoral Nerve     Gluteal Nerve    Inferior Gluteal Nerve            Superior Gluteal Nerve      Obturator nerve     Median Nerve     Musculocutaneous Nerve     Peroneal Nerve       Common Peroneal Nerve           Deep Peroneal Nerve...
 
Test (image)

 
Lower Extremity
    abductor digiti quinti pedis     abductor hallucis brevis     adductor longus     biceps femoris - long head     biceps femoris - short head     extensor digitorum brevis     extensor digitorum longus     extensor hallucis longus     flexor digitorum...
 
Sciatic Nerve
abductor digiti quinti pedis - Tibial Divisionabductor hallucis brevis - Tibial Divisionbiceps femoris - long head - Tibial Divisionbiceps femoris - short head - Peroneal Divisionextensor digitorum brevis - Peroneal Divisionextensor digitorum longus - Peroneal...
 
Tibial Nerve
abductor digiti quinti pedisabductor hallucis brevisflexor digitorum longusflexor hallucis brevis gastrocnemius - lateral headgastrocnemius - medial head soleustibialis posterior
 
Lateral Plantar Nerve
abductor digiti quinti pedis
 
Superficial Peroneal Nerve
peroneus longus
 
Deep Peroneal Nerve
extensor digitorum brevisextensor digitorum longus extensor hallucis longustibialis anterior
 
Common Peroneal Nerve
extensor digitorum brevisextensor digitorum longusextensor hallucis longus peroneus longustibialis anterior
 
Femoral Nerve
iliopsoasiliopsoasvastus lateralis vastus medialis 
 
Inferior Gluteal Nerve
gluteus maximus
 
Superior Gluteal Nerve
gluteus mediustensor fasciae latae
 
Medial Plantar Nerve
abductor hallucis brevisflexor hallucis brevis
 
Obturator Nerve
adductor longus
 
Extensor Digitorum Brevis
Muscle Name: extensor digitorum brevisAKA:  musculus extensor digitorum brevisAbbreviation: EDBSpinal Nerve Roots:    L4    L5    S1Plexus:    lumbosacral plexusNamed Nerves:    deep peroneal nerve    common peroneal nerve    sciatic nerveProximal Attachment: ...
 
Abductor Hallucis Brevis
Muscle Name: abductor hallucis brevisAKA:  musculus abductor hallucisAbbreviation: AHBSpinal Nerve Roots:    S1    S2Plexus:    lumbosacral plexusNamed Nerves:    medial plantar nerve    tibial nerve    sciatic nerveProximal Attachment:  Tuberosity of the...
 
Abductor Digiti Quinti Pedis
Muscle Name: abductor digiti quinti pedisAKA:  Abductor digiti minimi pedis, Abductor minimi digiti, Abductor digiti quinti, musculus abductor digiti minimi pedisAbbreviation: ADQPSpinal Nerve Roots:    S1    S2Plexus:    lumbosacral plexusNamed Nerves:   ...
 
Tensor Fasciae Latae
Muscle Name: tensor fasciae lataeAKA:  Abbreviation: TFLSpinal Nerve Roots:    L4    L5    S1Plexus:    lumbosacral plexusNamed Nerves:    superior gluteal nerveProximal Attachment:  Distal Attachment:  Action: ...Needle Insertion: ...Activation for EMG:  Pitfalls:  Notes:  
 
L2
adductor longusiliopsoas vastus lateralis vastus medialis
 
L3
adductor longusiliopsoas vastus lateralisvastus medialis
 
L4
adductor longus extensor hallucis longus gluteus medius iliopsoasiliopsoas semimembranosus semitendonosus tibialis anterior vastus lateralis vastus medialis tensor fasciae latae
 
L5
biceps femoris - long head biceps femoris - short head extensor hallucis longusflexor digitorum longus gastrocnemius - lateral head gluteus mediusgluteus maximus peroneus longus semimembranosussemitendonosus tibialis anteriortibialis posterior tensor fasciae latae  
 
S2
abductor digiti quinti pedisabductor hallucis brevisgastrocnemius - lateral headgastrocnemius - medial head gluteus maximussoleus
 
Vastus Lateralis
Muscle Name: vastus lateralisAKA:  Abbreviation: VLSpinal Nerve Roots:    L2    L3    L4Plexus:    lumbar plexusNamed Nerves:    femoral nerveProximal Attachment:  Distal Attachment:  Action: ...Needle Insertion: ...Activation for EMG:  Pitfalls:  Notes:  
 
Spinal Nerve Roots
Choose A Spinal Segment:  Cervical:    C1    C2    C3    C4    C5    C6    C7    C8  Thoracic:    T1    C2    C3    C4    C5    C6    C7    C8    C9    C10    C11    C12  Lumbar:    L1    L2    L3    L4    L5  Sacral:    S1    S2    S3    S4    S5
 
Tibialis Anterior
Muscle Name: tibialis anteriorAKA:  Abbreviation: TASpinal Nerve Roots:    L4    L5Plexus:    lumbosacral plexusNamed Nerves:    deep peroneal nerve    common peroneal nerve    sciatic nerveProximal Attachment:  Distal Attachment:  Action: ...Needle Insertion: ...
 
Extensor Digitorum Longus
Muscle Name: extensor digitorum longusAKA:  musculus extensor digitorum longusAbbreviation: EDLSpinal Nerve Roots:    L4    L5    S1 Plexus:    lumbosacral plexusNamed Nerves:    deep peroneal nerve    common peroneal nerve    sciatic nerveProximal Attachment: ...
 
Flexor Hallucis Brevis
Muscle Name: flexor hallucis brevisAKA:  musculus flexor hallucis brevisAbbreviation: FHBSpinal Nerve Roots:    S1    S2Plexus:    lumbosacral plexusNamed Nerves:    medial plantar nerve    tibial nerve    sciatic nerveProximal Attachment:  lantar surface...
 
Soleus
Muscle Name: soleusAKA:  Abbreviation: SOLSpinal Nerve Roots:    S1    S2Plexus:    lumbosacral plexusNamed Nerves:    tibial nerve    sciatic nerveProximal Attachment:  Distal Attachment:  Action: ...Needle Insertion: ...Activation for EMG:  Pitfalls:  Notes:  
 
Tibialis Posterior
Muscle Name: tibialis posteriorAKA:  Abbreviation: TPSpinal Nerve Roots:    L5    S1Plexus:    lumbosacral plexusNamed Nerves:    tibial nerve    sciatic nerveProximal Attachment:  Distal Attachment:  Action: ...Needle Insertion: ...Activation for EMG:  Pitfalls:  Notes:  
 
Vastus Medialis
Muscle Name: vastus medialisAKA:  Abbreviation: VMSpinal Nerve Roots:    L2    L3    L4Plexus:    lumbar plexusNamed Nerves:    femoral nerveProximal Attachment:  Distal Attachment:  Action: ...Needle Insertion: ...Activation for EMG:  Pitfalls:  Notes:  
 
Lumbosacral Plexus

 
Lumbar Plexus

 
Sciatic Nerve (Peroneal Division)

 
Sciatic Nerve (Tibial Division)

 
Pectoralis Major EMG technique (video)

 
Sternocleidomastoid
Muscle Name: sternocleidomastoidAKA:   Abbreviation: SCM Spinal Nerve Roots:Brachial Plexus Trunks: NABrachial Plexus Cords: NA     Named Nerves: Accessory nerve      Proximal Attachment:   Distal Attachment:   Action:    Needle Insertion:    Activation for EMG:    Pitfalls:  Notes:    
 
Serratus Anterior (image)

 
Serratus Anterior
Muscle Name: serratus anteriorAKA:   Abbreviation:  Spinal Nerve Roots:    C5    C6    C7Brachial Plexus Trunks: NABrachial Plexus Cords:  NANamed Nerves:    long thoracic nerve Proximal Attachment:   Surface of the upper 8 ribs.Distal Attachment:   Costal aspects of the medial margin of the scapula...
 
Rhomboid
Muscle Name: RhomboidAKA:   musculus rhomboideus majorAbbreviation:  Spinal Nerve Roots:    C4    C5Brachial Plexus Trunks: NABrachial Plexus Cords: NA    Named Nerves: dorsal scapular nerve Proximal Attachment:   Spinous processes of the T2 to T5 vertebraeDistal...
 
Rhomboids highlighted. (image)

 
Rhomboid (image)

 
Triceps
Muscle Name: tricepsAKA:  musculus triceps brachiiAbbreviation:  Spinal Nerve Roots:    C6    C7    C8Brachial Plexus Trunks:    upper trunk    middle trunk    lower trunkBrachial Plexus Cords:    posterior cordNamed Nerves:    radial nerveProximal Attachment:...
 
Pectoralis Major
Muscle Name: pectoralis majorAKA:   Musculus pectoralis majorAbbreviation:  Spinal Nerve Roots:    C5     C6     C7    C8    T1 Brachial Plexus Trunks:    upper trunk    middle trunk    lower trunkBrachial Plexus Cords:    medial cord     lateral cord Named Nerves:    medial pectoral nerve  (a...
 
Pectoralis Major (image)

 
Latissimis dorsi highlighted (image)

 
Latissimus Dorsi (image)

 
Latissimus Dorsi
Muscle Name: latissimus dorsi AKA:   musculus latissimus dorsiAbbreviation:  Spinal Nerve Roots:     C6      C7      C8 Brachial Plexus Trunks:    upper trunk    middle trunk    lower trunkBrachial Plexus Cords:    posterior cordNamed Nerves:    Thoracodorsal...
 
Infraspinatus
Muscle Name: InfraspinatusAKA:   Abbreviation:  Spinal Nerve Roots:     C5    C6Brachial Plexus Trunks: upperBrachial Plexus Cords:  NANamed Nerves: suprascapular nerve      Proximal Attachment:   infraspinous fossa of the scapulaDistal Attachment:   middle...
 
Supraspinatous nerve with arrow (image)

 
Supraspinatous nerve (image)

 
This cartoon shows the infraspinaous muscles highlighted. (image)

 
Muscles connecting the upper extremity to the vertebral column. (image)

 
Cervical Paraspinal Muscles
Muscle Name: cervical paraspinal musclesAKA:   Abbreviation:  Spinal Nerve Roots:           Innervated by the dorsal rami of the corresponding spinal level.Brachial Plexus Trunks: NABrachial Plexus Cords: NA     Named Nerves: NA      Attachment: Attachments vary depending on depth of muscle...
 
EMG Tutorial
A searchable, illustrated tutorial for electrodiagnsotic studies, by Steven Arbogat, D.O., and J. Douglas Miles, M.D., Ph.D.This tutorial covers both nerve conduction studies (NCS) and electromyography (EMG). We have attempted to organize the tutorial in a...
 
MSA Hot Cross Bun sign with arrow (image)

 
MSA Hot Cross Bun sign 2 with arrow (image)

 
MSA Hot Cross Bun sign 2 (image)

 
MSA Hot Cross Bun sign (image)

 
Upper Trapezius EMG Technique (video)

 
Trapezius
Muscle Name: trapeziusAKA:   Abbreviation:  Spinal Nerve Roots:           Brachial Plexus Trunks:Brachial Plexus Cords:     Named Nerves:      Proximal Attachment:   Distal Attachment:   Action:    Needle Insertion:    Activation for EMG:    Pitfalls:  Notes:    
 
Teres Minor EMG Technique (video)

 
Teres Minor
Muscle Name: teres minorAKA:  Abbreviation:  Spinal Nerve Roots:    C5    C6Brachial Plexus Trunks:    upper trunkBrachial Plexus Cords:    posterior cordNamed Nerves:    axillary nerveProximal Attachment:   Distal Attachment:   Action:    Needle Insertion:    Activation for EMG:    Pitfalls:  Notes:   
 
Supraspinatus EMG Technique (video)

 
Supraspinatus
Muscle Name: supraspinatusAKA:   Abbreviation:  Spinal Nerve Roots:           Brachial Plexus Trunks:Brachial Plexus Cords:     Named Nerves:      Proximal Attachment:   Distal Attachment:   Action:    Needle Insertion:    Activation for EMG:    Pitfalls:  Notes:    
 
Sternocleidomastoid EMG Technique (video)

 
Serratus Anterior EMG Technique (video)

 
Latissimus Dorsi EMG Technique (video)

 
Infraspinatus activation Technique (video)

 
Infraspinatus EMG Technique (video)

 
Lower Cervical Paraspinal Muscles EMG Technique (video)

 
Middle Cervical Paraspinal Muscles EMG Technique (video)

 
Upper Cervical Paraspinal Muscles EMG Technique (video)

 
Posterior Deltoid EMG Technique - Method 2 (video)

 
Posterior Deltoid EMG Technique - Method 1 (video)

 
Anterior Deltoid EMG Technique (video)

 
Rhomboid EMG Technique (video)

 
Pronator Quadratus
Muscle Name: pronator quadratusAKA:  musculus pronator quadratusAbbreviation:  PQSpinal Nerve Roots:    C7    C8    T1Brachial Plexus Trunks:    middle trunk    lower trunkBrachial Plexus Cords:    medial cord    lateral cordNamed Nerves:    median nerve ...
 
Anterior view of the cutaneous nerves of the upper extremity. (image)

 
Lateral Femoral Cutaneous Sensory Nerve - recording the lateral thigh (antidromic)
Origin:  L2-3 roots, lumbar plexusRecording Site:  Anterolateral thigh (bar electrode)Reference Site:  Thigh (bar electrode)Ground Site:  ThighStimulation Site:  Iliac crestProcedure:  The recording and reference electrodes (bar electrode) is placed 12cm down from the iliac crest...
 
Cutaneous nerves of the right lower extremity. (image)

 
Lateral Femoral Cutaneous Sensory Nerve – Anatomy (image)

 
Lateral Femoral Cutaneous Sensory Nerve Anatomy (image)

 
Brachial Plexus (image)

 
Lateral Antebrachial Cutaneous Sensory Nerve (image)

 
Lumbar Plexus diagram. (image)

 
Lumbar Plexus (image)

 
Femoral Nerve - Anatomy (image)

 
Facial Nerve (image)

 
Brachial Plexus (image)

 
Axillary Motor Nerve - Anatomy (image)

 
Facial Mononeuropathy/Bell’s Palsy
Facial Mononeuropathy/Bell’s PalsyNerve            Recording Sites        Stimulation SitesFacial (m) bilat    Orbicularis Oculi        earBlink Reflexes bilat    Orbicularis Oculi        supraorbital notchNeedle ExaminationPerform needle exam on the affected side of the face.
 
Phrenic Mononeuropathy
Phrenic MononeuropathyNerve            Recording Sites        Stimulation SitesPhrenic (m) bilat    xyphoid process        anterior neckNeedle ExaminationNeedle exam is not usually performed.
 
Myopathy
MyopathyNerve             Recording Sites        Stimulation Sites         F-WavesMedian (s)         index                wrist       orRadial (s)         thumb                  forearmMedian (m)        APB                wrist and elbow             wristSural...
 
Peripheral Neuropathy/Motor Neuron Disease
Peripheral Neuropathy/Motor Neuron DiseaseNerve            Recording Sites        Stimulation Sites          F-WavesMedian (s)        index and middle        wristUlnar (s)        5th                wristRadial (s)        thumb                forearmMedian...
 
Lumbosacral Plexopathy
Lumbosacral PlexopathyNerve            Recording Sites        Stimulation Sites           F-WavesSural (s) bilat        ankle                calfSup Peron (s) bilat    ankle                lat legPeroneal (m) bilat    EDB                ankle and above knee  ...
 
Sciatic Mononeuropathy
Needle ExaminationPerform needle exam on the symptomatic limb.  Test the minimum of once muscle innervated by the L2, L3, L4, L5 and S1 spinal roots (see Appendix C).  Test the lumbosacral paraspinal muscles at one or more levels.If abnormalities are detected,...
 
Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome
arsal Tunnel SyndromeNerve            Recording Sites        Stimulation Sites     F-Waves    Sural (s)        ankle                calfSup Peron (s)    ankle                lat legMed Plantar(s) bilat    ankle                soleLat Plantar(s) bilat    ankle  ...
 
Femoral Mononeuropathy
Femoral MononeuropathyNerve            Recording Sites        Stimulation Sites          F-WavesSural (s)        ankle                calfSup Peron (s)    ankle                lat legSaphenous (s) bilat    leg                legPeroneal (m)        EDB      ...
 
Peroneal Mononeuropathy
Peroneal MononeuropathyNerve            Recording Sites        Stimulation Sites                F-WavesSural (s)        ankle                calfSup Peron (s) bilat    ankle                lat legPeroneal (m) bilat    EDB                ankle, bel & above...
 
Routine Lower Extremity Back/Leg Pain and Lumbosacral Root Search
LOWER EXTREMITYRoutine Lower Extremity Back/Leg Pain and Lumbosacral Root SearchNerve            Recording Sites        Stimulation Sites            F-WavesSural (s)        ankle                calf    Sup Peron (s)    ankle                lat legPeroneal...
 
Other Upper Extremity Mononeuropathies (Axillary, Musculocutaneous, Suprascapular, Spinal Accessory, etc…)
Nerve Conductions Studies Median sensory recording the index and middle fingers.Ulnar sensory recording the ring finger. Radial sensory recording the dorsal thumb.Lateral antebrachial cutaneous sensory recording the forearm.Median motor recording the abductor pollicis brevis with F-Waves...
 
Radial Mononeuropathy
Nerve Conductions Studies Median sensory recording the index and middle fingers. Ulnar sensory recording the ring finger.  Radial sensory recording the bilateral dorsal thumbs.Median motor recording the abductor pollicis brevis with F-Waves.Ulnar motor recording...
 
Neck/Arm pain and root search
Nerve Conductions StudiesMedian sensory recording the index and middle fingers. Ulnar sensory recording the ring finger.  Radial sensory recording the dorsal thumb.Median motor recording the abductor pollicis brevis with F-Waves.Ulnar motor recording the abductor...
 
Ulnar Mononeuropathy
Median sensory recording index and middle  fingers.Ulnar sensory recording the llittle  finger.Radial sensory recording the dorsal thumb.Dorsal Ulnar sensory recording the dorsum of the handMedian motor recording the abductor pollicis brevis with F-Waves.Ulnar...
 
All Nerves
A list of all nerves commonly tested in alphabetic order.Axillary Axillary Motor Nerve - recording the DeltoidBlink Blink Reflexes – recording the Orbicularis OculiF-waves F-WavesFacial Facial Motor Nerve – recording the Orbicularis OculiFemoralFemoral...
 
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Nerve Conductions StudiesMedian sensory recording the  index and middle  fingers. Ulnar sensory recording the llittle finger.Radial sensory recording the dorsal thumb. Median motor recording the abductor pollicis brevis with F-Waves. Ulnar motormotor recording...
 
Sensory Nerves
Lateral Antebrachial CutaneousLateral Antebrachial Cutaneous Sensory Nerve - Forearm(antidromic) Lateral Femoral Cutaneous Lateral Femoral Cutaneous Sensory Nerve – recording the lateral thigh (antidromic)Medial Antebrachia; Cutaneous Medial Antebrachial...
 
Brachial Plexopathy (including Thoracic Outlet Syndrome)
Brachial Plexopathy (including Thoracic Outlet Syndrome)Median sensory recording the bilateral  index and middle fingers.Median sensory recording the bilateral thumbs.Ulnar sensory recording the bilateral llittle fingers.Radial sensory recording the bilateral dorsal thumbs...
 
Nerve Conduction Studies
All Nerves   Upper Extremity Nerve Conduction Studies Lower Extremity Nerve Conductions  Motor Nerve Conduction Studies Sensory Nerves  Special Studies      These are studies not performed on a regular basis, including facial motor responses, repetitive nerve...
 
Special Studies
Blink Blink Reflexes – recording the Orbicularis OculiF-waves F-WavesFacial Facial Motor Nerve – recording the Orbicularis OculiH-ReflexH-Reflex - recording the SoleusRepetitive Stimulation Repetitive Nerve Stimulation for Myasthenia Gravis (post-synaptic...
 
Upper Extremity Nerve Conduction Studies
MotorAxillary Motor Nerve - recording the Deltoid  Median and Ulnar motor nerves- Recording the 2nd Lumbrical and interossei Median Motor Study - Recording the Abductor Pollicis Brevis Musculocutaneous Motor Nerve - recording the Biceps  Radial Motor Nerve...
 
Lower Extremity Nerve Conductions
SensoryLateral Femoral Cutaneous Sensory Nerve – recording the lateral thigh (antidromic)Saphenous Sensory Nerve – recording anterior to the Medial Malleolus (antidromic)Superficial Peroneal Sensory Nerve - recording anterior to the Lateral Malleolus...
 
Motor Nerve Conduction Studies
Axillary Axillary Motor Nerve - recording the DeltoidFacial Facial Motor Nerve – recording the Orbicularis OculiFemoralFemoral Motor Nerve - recording the Rectus FemorisMedian Median Palmar Mixed Nerve (orthodromic) Median Motor Study - Recording the...
 
Median Sensory Nerve - Recording the index finger (antidromic)
Origin:  C6-C7 roots, upper and middle trunk and lateral cord of the brachial plexus, median nerveRecording Site:  Index fingerReference Site:  Index fingerGround:  Palm or top of handStimulation Site:  WristProcedure:  The recording electrode is placed on the proximal phalanx of the index finger...
 
Median Sensory Nerve - Recording the middle finger (antidromic)
Median Sensory Nerve - middle (antidromic)Origin:  C7 root, middle trunk and lateral cord of the brachial plexus, median nerveRecording Site:  Middle fingerReference Site:  Middle fingerGround:  Palm or top of handStimulation Site:  WristProcedure:  The recording...
 
Median Sensory Nerve - Recording the thumb (antidromic)
Origin:  C6-C7 root, upper and middle trunk and lateral cord of the brachial plexus, median nerve.Recording Site:  ThumbReference Site:  ThumbGround:  Palm or top of handStimulation Site:  WristProcedure:  The recording electrode is placed on the proximal phalanx of the thumb...
 
Ulnar Sensory Nerve - Recording the little finger (antidromic)
Origin:  C8 root, lower trunk and lateral cord of the brachial plexus, ulnar nerveRecording Site:  Little fingerReference Site:  Little fingerGround:  Palm or top of handStimulation Site:  Wrist Procedure:  The recording electrode is placed on the proximal phalange of the little finger...
 
Normal Value Disclaimer
Please be awere that each lab may have its own normal values. These can vary based upon age, temperature, technique and equipment.Age generally leads to a lower amplitude and a prolonged distal latency.  Temperature has significant effects on nerve conduction studies...
 
Repetitive Stimulation for Lambert-Eaton Syndrome (pre-synaptic neuromuscular junction defect)
The most common rapid repetitive stimulation studies are recorded from the Median (APB) or Ulnar (ADM) motor nerves.  However, rapid repetitive stimulation studies can be performed on any motor nerve.After performing the routine motor nerve conduction study...
 
Repetitive Nerve Stimulation for Myasthenia Gravis (post-synaptic neuromuscular junction defect)
The most common slow repetitive stimulation studies are recorded from the  Median (APB), Ulnar (ADM), Spinal Accessory (Trapezius) and the Facial (Orbicularis Oculi) motor nerves.  However, myasthenia gravis repetitive stimulation studies can be performed on any motor point...
 
F-Waves
The most common routine F-wave responses are recorded from the Median (APB), Ulnar (ADM), Peroneal (EDB) and the Tibial (AH) motor nerves.  However, F-waves can be recorded from any motor nerve.  F-waves vary in amplitude and latency and may not be recorded following every stimulation...
 
Blink Reflexes – recording the Orbicularis Oculi (image)

 
Blink Reflexes – recording the Orbicularis Oculi
Origin:  Brainstem nuclei, facial nerves, trigeminal nervesRecording Site:  Orbicularis OculiReference Site:  Lateral orbit or side of noseGround:  ForeheadStimulation Site:  Supraorbital notchProcedure:  The recording electrode is placed over the orbicularis oculi...
 
Facial Motor Nerve – recording the Orbicularis Oculi (image)

 
Facial Motor Nerve – recording the Orbicularis Oculi
Origin:  Brainstem facial nucleus, facial nerveRecording Site:  Orbicularis OculiReference Site:  Outer canthusGround:  ForeheadStimulation Site:  Front of Lower ear.Procedure:  The recording electrode is placed over the orbicularis oculi muscles, midpoint, just below the lower lid...
 
H-Reflex - recording the Soleus
Origin:  S1, sacral plexus, sciatic nerve, tibial nerve.Recording Site:  Soleus Reference Site:  Achilles tendon, just above the ankleGround:  Back of leg, halfway between the knee and recording site Procedure:  The patient should be placed in the prone position...
 
H-Reflex - recording the Soleus (image)

 
Femoral Motor Nerve - recording the Rectus Femoris.
Origin:  L2-L4 roots, lumbar plexus, femoral nerveRecording Site:  Rectus Femoris muscle (Rec Fem)Reference Site:  Distal thighGround:  Medial thighStimulation Site:  GroinProcedure:  The recording electrode is placed over the belly of the Rec Fem.  The reference...
 
Femoral Motor Nerve - recording the Rectus Femoris. (image)

 
Tibial Motor Nerve - recording the Abductor Digiti Quinti Pedis (image)

 
Tibial Motor Nerve - recording the Abductor Digiti Quinti Pedis
Origin:  S1-S2 roots, sacral plexus, sciatic nerve, tibial nerveRecording Site:  Abductor Digiti Quinti Pedis muscle (ADQP)Reference Site:  Top of foot below 5th toeGround:  Top of footStimulation Site:  Ankle Procedure:  The recording electrode is placed over the belly of the ADQP...
 
Tibial Motor Nerve - recording the Abductor Hallucis (image)

 
Tibial Motor Nerve - recording the Abductor Hallucis
Origin:  S1-S2 roots, sacral plexus, sciatic nerve, tibial nerve.Recording Site:  Abductor Hallucis muscle (AH)Reference Site:  Base of big toeGround:  Top of footStimulation Sites:  Ankle and kneeProcedure:  The recording electrode is placed over the belly of the AH...
 
Peroneal Motor Nerve - recording the Tibialis Anterior (image)

 
Peroneal Motor Nerve - recording the Tibialis Anterior
Origin:  L4-L5 roots, sacral plexus, sciatic nerve, peroneal nerveRecording Site:  Tibialis Anterior muscle (TA)Reference Site:  Top of AnkleGround:  Medial lower legStimulation Sites:  Below the fibular head and kneeProcedure:  The recording electrode is placed over the belly of the TA...
 
Peroneal Motor Nerve - recording the Extensor Digitorum Brevis (image)

 
Peroneal Motor Nerve - recording the Extensor Digitorum Brevis
Origin:  L5-S1 roots, sacral plexus, sciatic nerve, peroneal nerveRecording Site:  Extensor Digitorum Brevis muscle (EDB)Reference Site:  Top of foot below the 4th and 5th toesGround:  Top of footStimulation Sites:  Ankle, below fibular neck and kneeProcedure: ...
 
Medial and Lateral Plantar Mixed Nerves (orthodromic) (image)

 
Medial and Lateral Plantar Mixed Nerves (orthodromic)
Medial and Lateral Plantar Mixed Nerves (orthodromic)Origin:  S1 root, sacral plexus, sciatic nerve, tibial nerveRecording Site:  Ankle (bar electrode)Reference Site:  Ankle (bar electrode)Ground:  Top of footStimulation Site:                Medial foot (medial...
 
Lateral Femoral Cutaneous Sensory Nerve – recording the lateral thigh (antidromic) (image)

 
Saphenous Sensory Nerve – recording anterior to the Medial Malleolus (antidromic) (image)

 
Saphenous Sensory Nerve – recording anterior to the Medial Malleolus (antidromic)
Origin:  L3-4 roots, lumbar plexus, femoral nerveRecording Site:  Lower calf at ankle (bar electrode)Reference Site:  Lower calf at ankle (bar electrode)Ground:  Lower legStimulation Site:  CalfProcedure:  The recording and reference electrodes (bar...
 
Saphenous Sensory Nerve – recording anterior to the Medial Malleolus (antidromic)
Origin:  L3-4 roots, lumbar plexus, femoral nerveRecording Site:  Lower calf at ankle (bar electrode)Reference Site:  Lower calf at ankle (bar electrode)Ground:  Lower legStimulation Site:  CalfProcedure:  The recording and reference electrodes (bar electrode)...
 
Superficial Peroneal Sensory Nerve - recording anterior to the Lateral Malleolus (antidromic) (image)

 
Superficial Peroneal Sensory Nerve - recording anterior to the Lateral Malleolus (antidromic)
Origin:  L5 root, sacral plexus, sciatic nerve, peroneal nerve.Recording Site:  Lateral lower leg (bar electrode)Reference Site:  Lateral lower leg (bar electrode)Ground:  Medial lower legStimulation:  Lateral lower legProcedure:  The recording and reference...
 
Sural Sensory Nerve - recording behind the Lateral Malleolus (antidromic) (image)

 
Sural Sensory Nerve - recording behind the Lateral Malleolus (antidromic)
Sural Sensory Nerve (antidromic)Origin:  S1 root, sacral plexus, sciatic nerve, tibial nerve.Recording Site:  Lateral MalleolusReference Site:  Side of the footGround:  Top of footStimulation Site:  Back of lower legProcedure:  The patient should be lying...
 
Type 1 prion disease, whole mount section of medial temporal lobe and hippocampus, 3F4 immunohistochemical stain. (image)

 
Gerstmann Straussler Scheinker disease, hippocampal formation, H&E stain, low-power (image)

 
Gerstmann Straussler Scheinker disease, hippocampus, high power H&E (image)

 
Type 1 prion disease, cerebellum, 3F4 immunohistochemical staining x 100 (image)

 
Type 2 prion disease, cerebellum, 3F4 immunohistochemical staining x 100 (image)

 
Type 1 prion disease, cerebellum, 3F4 immunohistochemical staining x 20 (image)

 
Type 2 prion disease, H&E stained section of hippocampus. (image)

 
Type 2 prion disease, cerebellum, 3F4 immunohistochemical staining x 20 (image)

 
Type 1 prion disease, hippocampus, 3F4 immunohistochemical staining (image)

 
Type 2 prion disease, immunohistochemical stains sectioned from hippocampus. (image)

 
Type I prion disease, hippocampus, H&E stained section x 100 (image)

 
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, H&E stain x 400 (image)

 
Denervation atrophy of skeletal muscle, NADH-TR (image)

 
Polymyositis, paraffin-embedded H&E stained section x 600 (image)

 
Polymyositis,paraffin-embedded, H&E stained section 400x (image)

 
Polymyositis, paraffin-embedded H. E. stained section x 200 (image)

 
Polymyositis, immunohistochemical staining for CD68 x600 (image)

 
Polymyositis, CD3 immunohistochemical staining x600 (image)

 
Polymyositis, CD20 immunohistochemical staining x600 (image)

 
Churg-Strauss arteritis, H&E stained section x 400 (image)

 
Polymyositis, H&E stained section (image)

 
Perivascular infiltrate, H&E stained paraffin embedded section x400 (image)

 
Perivascular infiltrate, H&E stained section of paraffin embedded skeletal muscle x200 (image)

 
Paraneoplastic myositis, H&E stained section (image)

 
Dermatomyositis, H&E stained sections of paraffin embedded skeletal muscle (image)

 
Dermatomyositis, H&E stained section of frozen skeletal muscle x 100 (image)

 
Dermatomyositis, H&E stained section of paraffin embedded muscle x 200 (image)

 
Dermatomyositis, H&E stained section of paraffin embedded skeletal muscle x 400 (image)

 
Churg Strauss arteritis on muscle biopsy, H&E stained section x 40 (image)

 
Churg strauss arteritis involving skeletal muscle, H&E stain x 100 (image)

 
Churg-Strauss arteritis involving epimysial artery, H&E stain x 200 (image)

 
Inclusion body myositis, Gomori trichrome stain x 400 (image)

 
Inclusion body myositis, H&E stain x400 (image)

 
Inclusion body myositis, H&E stain x200 (image)

 
Inclusion body myositis, Gomori trichrome stain x400 (image)

 
Inclusion body myositis, Gomori trichrome stain x 200 (image)

 
Inclusion body myositis, SMI-31 immunohistochemical staining x400 (image)

 
Inclusion body myositis, SMI-31 immunohistochemical staining x200 (image)

 
Inclusion body myositis, SMI-31 immunohistochemical stain x 400 (image)

 
Inclusion body myositis, Gomori trichrome stained frozen muscle x 200 (image)

 
Inclusion body myositis, trichrome stain, low-power. (image)

 
Myopathy with tubular aggregates, H&E stain x 200 (image)

 
Myopathy with tubular aggregates, Gomori trichrome stain x 400. (image)

 
Myopathy with tubular aggregates, NADH-TR histochemical staining x400 (image)

 
Congenital Fiber Type Disproportion
The defining feature of congenital fiber type disproportion (CFTD) is type 1 muscle fibers which are at least 12% smaller than type 2 muscle fibers. CNS abnormalities and developmental delay may be present. Severity of clinical weakness correlates with smallness of type 1 fibers...
 
Centronuclear myopathy, H&E stained section of paraffin embedded skeletal muscle x 200 (image)

 
Target fibers, NADH-TR histochemical stain (image)

 
Central cord disease, NADH-TR histochemical stain (image)

 
Central cord disease, cytochrome oxidase stain (image)

 
Nemaline myopathy, trichrome stained frozen section of muscle x 200 (image)

 
Nemaline myopathy, trichrome stain x 100 (image)

 
Calpainopathy, paraffin-embedded H&E stained section x 600 (image)

 
Calpainopathy, paraffin-embedded H&E stained section x 400 (image)

 
Calpainopathy, paraffin-embedded H&E stained section of muscle x 200 (image)

 
Calpainopathy, frozen section of muscle, H&E stain x 200. (image)

 
Congenital muscular dystrophy, paraffin-embedded H&E stain x200 (image)

 
Titinopathy, paraffin-embedded H&E stained section of muscle x 200 (image)

 
Ring fibers, trichrome staining of muscle (image)

 
Ring fibers, NADH-TR histochemical staining (image)

 
Ring fibers, H&E stain section (image)

 
Necrotizing myopathy in a patient with rhabdomyolysis, H&E stained section x 400 (image)

 
Myofibrillary myopathy, H&E stained slide x 100 (image)

 
Lewy Body, substantia nigra neuron x 400 (image)

 
Classic Lewy body within locus ceruleus, H&E stained section x 600 (image)

 
Multiple system atrophy, alpha synuclein immunohistochemical staining within dentate nucleus of cerebellum. (image)

 
Extraneuronal Lewy bodies, H&E stain X 600 (image)

 
Progressive supranuclear palsy, dentate nucleus of cerebellum, H. and E. stain x 200 (image)

 
Classic Lewy body, H&E stain X600 (image)

 
Corticalbasal ganglionic degeneration, coronal section of brain 3 thalamus and basal ganglia. (image)

 
Amygdala, immunohistochemical staining for alpha synuclein (image)

 
Cerebellar degeneration, H&E stained section x 20 (image)

 
Spinocerebellar atrophy, H&E section through cerebellar folia x 40 (image)

 
Olivopontocerebellar Atrophy, coronal section through frontal lobe and transverse sections through pons, medulla, and cerebellum. (image)

 
End-stage Huntington disease, coronal section through basal ganglia and thalamus (image)

 
Huntington disease, coronal section through basal ganglia (control brain on right). (image)

 
Hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids, coronal section through brain, close-up (image)

 
Fredreich Ataxia, whole mount myelin stained section of the thoracic spinal cord (image)

 
Binswanger disease, coronal section through frontal pole. (image)

 
Posterior Lobar atrophy, lateral surface of brain (image)

 
Pick Disease, ventral surface of brain. (image)

 
Hereditary dysphasic dementia, coronal section of brain. (image)

 
Frontotemporal lobar degeneration, coronal section of medial temporal lobe, close-up (image)

 
Frontotemporal lobar degeneration, lateral surface of brain (image)

 
Frontotemporal lobar degeneration, coronal section through temporal lobe. (image)

 
Frontotemporal lobar degeneration, ubiquitin immunoreactivity within dentate gyrus of hippocampus. (image)

 
Spinal Accessory Motor Nerve - recording the Trapezius (image)

 
Spinal Accessory Motor Nerve - recording the Trapezius
Origin:  C2-C4 roots, cervical plexus, spinal accessory nerve.Recording Site:  TrapeziusReference Site:  ShoulderGround:  Upper backStimulation Site:  Posterior neckProcedure:  The recording electrode is placed on the belly of the trapezius muscle.  The reference...
 
Axillary Motor Nerve - recording the Deltoid (image)

 
Axillary Motor Nerve - recording the Deltoid
Origin:  C5-6 roots, upper trunk and posterior cord of the brachial plexus, axillary nerve.Recording Site:  Deltoid muscleReference Site:  Distal upper armGround:  ShoulderStimulation Sites:  Erb’s PointProcedure:  The recording electrode is placed over...
 
Musculocutaneous Motor Nerve - recording the Biceps (image)

 
Musculocutaneous Motor Nerve - recording the Biceps
Origin:  C5-6 roots, upper trunk and lateral cord of the brachial plexus, Musculocutaneous nerve.Recording Site:  Biceps muscleReference Site:  Distal upper armGround:  Upper armStimulation Site:  Axilla and Erb’s point.Procedure:  The recording electrode...
 
Musculocutaneous Motor Nerve - recording the Biceps
Upper ExtremityLower Extremity Motor NervesSensory Nerves All NervesSpecial Studies
 
Radial Motor Nerve - Recording the Extenor Digitorum Communis (EDC) (image)

 
Radial Motor Nerve - Recording the Extenor Digitorum Communis (EDC)
Origin:  C7-C8 roots, middle and lower trunk and posterior cord of the brachial plexus, radial nerve.Recording Site:  Extensor Digitorum Communis muscle (EDC)Reference Site:  Above the wristGround:  Medial forearmStimulation Sites:  Elbow and arm (below and...
 
Median and Ulnar motor nerves- Recording the 2nd Lumbrical and interossei
Origin:    Median – C8-T1 roots, lower trunk and medial cord of the brachial plexus, median nerve.Ulnar – C8-T1 roots, lower trunk and medial cord of the brachial plexus, ulnar nerve.Recording Site:  Palm, between the 2nd and 3rd metacarpal bones...
 
Median and Ulnar motor nerves- Recording the 2nd Lumbrical and interossei (image)

 
Ulnar Motor Nerve - Recording the First Dorsal Interosseous (FDI) (image)

 
Ulnar Motor Nerve - Recording the First Dorsal Interosseous (FDI)
Origin:  C8-T1 roots, lower trunk and medial cord of the brachial plexus, ulnar nerveRecording Site:  First Dorsal Interosseous (FDI or 1st DI)Reference Site:  Base of thumbGround:  Palm or Top of HandStimulation Site:  Wrist, below elbow and above elbow.Procedure: ...
 
Ulnar Motor Nerve - Recording the Abductor Digiti Minimi (ADM) (image)

 
Ulnar Motor Nerve - Recording the Abductor Digiti Minimi (ADM)
Origin:  C8-T1 roots, lower trunk and medial cord of the brachial plexus, ulnar nerveRecording Site:  Abductor Digiti Minimi muscle (ADM)Reference Site:  Base of little fingerGround:  Palm or top of handStimulation Sites:  Wrist, below elbow and above elbow...
 
Median Motor Study - Recording the Abductor Pollicis Brevis (image)

 
Median Motor Study - Recording the Abductor Pollicis Brevis
Origin:  C8-T1 roots, lower trunk and medial cord of the brachial plexus, median nerve.Recording Site:  Abductor Pollicis Brevis muscle (APB)Reference Site:  Base of thumbGround:  Palm or top of handStimulation Sites:  Wrist and elbowProcedure:  The recording...
 
Recommended approaches to common clinical problems.
This section covers our recommended approaches to common conditions the electromyographer is asked to evaluate. Neck/Arm pain and root search  Carpal Tunnel Syndrome 
 
Medial Antebrachial Cutaneous Sensory Nerve - Forearm (antidromic)
Origin:  C8-T1 root, lower trunk and medial cord of the brachial plexusRecording Site:  Forearm (bar electrode)Reference Site:  Forearm (bar electrode)Ground:  ForearmStimulation Site:  ElbowProcedure:  The recording and reference electrodes (bar electrode)...
 
Ulnar Sensory Nerve - Recording the ring finger (antidromic)
Origin:  C8 root, lower trunk and lateral cord of the brachial plexus.Recording Site:  Ring fingerReference Site:  Ring fingerGround:  Palm or top of handStimulation Site:  WristProcedure:  The recording electrode is placed on the proximal phalange of the fourth finger...
 
Median Sensory Nerve - Recording the ring finger (antidromic)
Origin:  C7 roots, middle trunk and lateral cord of the brachial plexus.Recording Site: Ring FingerReference Site:  Ring FingerGround:  Palm or top of handStimulation Site:  Wrist Procedure:  The recording electrode is placed on the proximal phalanx of the ring finger...
 
Biceps Brachii
Muscle Name: biceps brachiiAKA: musculus biceps brachii Abbreviation:  BBSpinal Nerve Roots:    C5    C6Brachial Plexus Trunks:    upper trunkBrachial Plexus Cords:    lateral cordNamed Nerves:    musculocutaneous nerveProximal Attachment:  coracoid process of the scapula...
 
Supinator
Muscle Name: supinatorAKA:  Musculus supinatorAbbreviation:  Spinal Nerve Roots:    C6    C7Brachial Plexus Trunks:    upper trunk    middle trunkBrachial Plexus Cords:    posterior cordNamed Nerves:    radial nerveProximal Attachment:  Lateral epicondyle...
 
Supinator with arrow (image)

 
Supinator with arrow (image)

 
Supinator Anterior view (image)

 
Supinator Anterior view (image)

 
Supinator (image)

 
pronator quadratus highlighted (image)

 
Pronator Quadratus (image)

 
First Dorsal Interosseous
Muscle Name: first dorsal interosseousAKA:  Abbreviation:  FDISpinal Nerve Roots:    C8    T1Brachial Plexus Trunks:    lower trunkBrachial Plexus Cords:    medial cordNamed Nerves:    ulnar nerveProximal Attachment:  metacarpal bone.Distal Attachment:  proximal phalanx on the first digit...
 
First Dorsal Interosseous (image)

 
Flexor Pollicis Brevis
Muscle Name: flexor pollicis brevisAKA:  musculus flexor pollicis brevisAbbreviation: FPB Spinal Nerve Roots:    C8    T1Brachial Plexus Trunks:    lower trunkBrachial Plexus Cords:    medial cordNamed Nerves:    median nerve    ulnar nerveProximal Attachment: ...
 
Flexor Pollicis Brevis with arrow (image)

 
Flexor Pollicis Brevis (image)

 
Flexor Digitorum Profundus To Digit 5
Muscle Name: flexor digitorum profundus to digit 5AKA:  musculus flexor digitorum profundus Abbreviation:  FDP5Spinal Nerve Roots:    C7    C8    T1Brachial Plexus Trunks:    lower trunkBrachial Plexus Cords:    medial cordNamed Nerves:    ulnar nerveProximal...
 
Flexor Digitorum Profundus To Digit 4
Muscle Name: flexor digitorum profundus to digit 4AKA:  musculus flexor digitorum profundus Abbreviation:  FDP4Spinal Nerve Roots:    C7    C8    T1Brachial Plexus Trunks:    lower trunkBrachial Plexus Cords:    medial cordNamed Nerves:    ulnar nerveProximal...
 
Flexor Digitorum Profundus To Digit 2
Muscle Name: flexor digitorum profundus to digit 2AKA:  musculus flexor digitorum profundusAbbreviation:  FDP2Spinal Nerve Roots:    C7    C8    T1Brachial Plexus Trunks:    lower trunkBrachial Plexus Cords:    medial cordNamed Nerves:    median nerveProximal...
 
Flexor Digitorum Profundus To Digit 3
Muscle Name: flexor digitorum profundus to digit 3AKA:  musculus flexor digitorum profundusAbbreviation:  FDP3Spinal Nerve Roots:    C7    C8    T1Brachial Plexus Trunks:    lower trunkBrachial Plexus Cords:    medial cordNamed Nerves:    median nerveProximal...
 
Flexor Digitorum Profundus To Digit 4 (image)

 
Flexor Digitorum Profundus To Digit 5 (image)

 
Flexor digitorum profundus highlighted (image)

 
Flexor digitorum profundus highlighted (image)

 
Flexor Digitorum Profundus To Digit 2 (image)

 
Flexor digitorum profundus highlighted (image)

 
Flexor digitorum profundus highlighted (image)

 
Flexor Digitorum Profundus To Digit 3 (image)

 
Alzheimer disease, occipital neocortex, immunohistochemical staining for beta amyloid (image)

 
Flexor Carpi Ulnaris
Muscle Name: flexor carpi ulnarisAKA:  musculus flexor carpi ulnarisAbbreviation:  FCRSpinal Nerve Roots:    C7    C8    T1Brachial Plexus Trunks:    lower trunkBrachial Plexus Cords:    medial cordNamed Nerves:    ulnar nerveProximal Attachment:  medial epicondyle...
 
Polygyria, lateral surface of brain (image)

 
Hydranencephaly, ventral surface of brain. (image)

 
Flexor Carpi Ulnaris highlighted (image)

 
Porencephaly, in situ photograph, right lateral surface of brain (image)

 
Porencephaly, right lateral surface of brain. (image)

 
Flexor Carpi Radialis
Muscle Name: flexor carpi radialisAKA:  musculus flexor carpi radialisAbbreviation:  FCRSpinal Nerve Roots:    C6    C7Brachial Plexus Trunks:    upper trunk    middle trunkBrachial Plexus Cords:    lateral cordNamed Nerves:    median nerveProximal Attachment: ...
 
Bilateral porencephaly, in situ photograph of dorsal surface of brain. (image)

 
Extensor Pollicis Longus
Muscle Name: extensor pollicis longusAKA:  musculus extensor pollicis longusAbbreviation:  EPLSpinal Nerve Roots:    C7    C8Brachial Plexus Trunks:    middle trunk    lower trunkBrachial Plexus Cords:    posterior cordNamed Nerves:    radial nerveProximal...
 
Porencephalywith with secondary cortical spinal tract degeneration, sagittal section of cerebrum with transverse sections of brainstem (image)

 
Schizencephaly, lateral surface of brain. (image)

 
Extensor Pollicis Longus (image)

 
Extensor Pollicis Brevis
Muscle Name: extensor pollicis brevisAKA:  musculus extensor pollicis brevisAbbreviation:  EPBSpinal Nerve Roots:    C7    C8Brachial Plexus Trunks:    middle trunk    lower trunkBrachial Plexus Cords:    posterior cordNamed Nerves:    radial nerveProximal...
 
Schizencephaly, coronal section of brain. (image)

 
Extensor Pollicis Brevis (image)

 
Organizing periventricular leukomalacia (image)

 
Periventricular leukomalacia, coronal (image)

 
Periventricular white matter infarcts, Close up (image)

 
Periventricular leukomalacia with hemorrhagic transformation. (image)

 
Unilateral hemorrhagic necrosis involving right cerebral hemisphere, coronal section (image)

 
Neuronal mineralization, thalamic neurons, H&E stain (image)

 
Extensor Indicis
Muscle Name: extensor indicisAKA:  musculus extensor indicisAbbreviation:  EIPSpinal Nerve Roots:    C7    C8Brachial Plexus Trunks:    middle trunk    lower trunkBrachial Plexus Cords:    posterior cordNamed Nerves:    radial nerveProximal Attachment:  ulnaDistal...
 
Multicystic encephalopathy with status marmoratus (image)

 
Germinal matrix hemorrhage, with ventricular extension on the left, coronal section of brain. (image)

 
Severe post hemorrhagic hydrocephalus, coronal section through basal ganglia. (image)

 
Extensor Digitorum Communis
Muscle Name: extensor digitorum communis AKA:  musculus extensor digitorumAbbreviation:  EDCSpinal Nerve Roots:    C7    C8Brachial Plexus Trunks:    middle trunk    lower trunkBrachial Plexus Cords:    posterior cordNamed Nerves:    radial nerveProximal Attachment: ...
 
Periventricular hemorrhagic infarct and contralateral hydrocephalus, coronal section of brain (image)

 
Intraventricular hemorrhage with subarachnoid extension, ventral surface of brain. (image)

 
Extensor Carpi Ulnaris
Muscle Name: extensor carpi ulnarisAKA:  musculus extensor carpi ulnarisAbbreviation:  ECUSpinal Nerve Roots:    C7    C8Brachial Plexus Trunks:    middle trunk    lower trunkBrachial Plexus Cords:    posterior cordNamed Nerves:    radial nerveProximal Attachment: ...
 
Intraventricular Hemorrhage with periventricular venous infarction, coronal section (image)

 
Extensor Carpi Ulnaris (image)

 
Tumefactive demyelination, H&E stain x 400 with arrow (image)

 
Central Pontine Myelinolysis, transverse section with arrow (image)

 
Central Pontine Myelinolysis, transverse section (image)

 
Review of the relevant anatomy (MS)
Demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis and the leukoencephalopathies affect the myelin around axons of the central nervous system (CNS).  Myelinated axons are concentrated in the white matter of the CNS.  The images below provide a quick review of white matter in the CNS...
 
Thoracic Spinal Cord Cross-Section, Highlighted (image)

 
Oligodendrocyte with arrow (image)

 
Oligodendrocyte (image)

 
Thoracic Spinal Cord Cross-Section (image)

 
Meningomyelocele, dorsal surface of lower back (image)

 
Luckenschadel, inner surface of skull (image)

 
Occipital encephalocele, ventral surface of brain (image)

 
Craniorachiscisis totalis, fetal x-ray (image)

 
Craniorachiscisis totalis, dorsal view of fetus (image)

 
Chiari II malformation, ventral surface of posterior fossa structures (image)

 
Chiari II malformation, mid sagittal section through cerebellum and brainstem (image)

 
Chiari II malformation, complete dorsal view of dissected spinal cord and posterior fossa (image)

 
Chiari II malformation, spinal cord and posterior fossa structures (image)

 
Chiari II malformation, dorsal surface of cerebellum (image)

 
Anencephaly, dorsal view of cranium (image)

 
Anencephaly, sagittal section through cranium. (image)

 
Kearns-Sayre syndrome, H&E section of substantia nigra x 200 (image)

 
Kearns-Sayre syndrome, H&E stain section of substantia nigra x 100 (image)

 
Kearns-Sayre syndrome, high power H&E stained section of substantia nigra (image)

 
Medullary tegmental necrosis, transverse section of medulla (image)

 
Leigh syndrome, coronal section through thalamus (image)

 
Leigh syndrome, transverse section through midbrain (image)

 
Leigh's disease, coronal section through basal ganglia (image)

 
Necrosis of gray and white matter, coronal section (image)

 
Polymicrogyria, whole mount of coronal section, H&E stain (image)

 
Zonal heterotopia, coronal sections through parietal lobes (image)

 
Subcortical band heterotopia, coronal section through brain (image)

 
Polymicrogyria, coronal section through brain. (image)

 
Polygyria, dorsal surface of brain (image)

 
Periventricular nodular heterotopia, coronal section through occipital lobe of brain. (image)

 
Lissencephaly, coronal section through brain. (image)

 
Bilateral perisylvian ulegyria with periventricular nodular heterotopias, coronal section of brain. (image)

 
Familial myoclonic epilepsy, high power H&E stained section of brain (image)

 
Sagittal sections through autopsy cerebellum, GM2 gangliosidosis (Tay Sachs disease). (image)

 
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, ultrastructural examination of peripheral blood lymphocytes (image)

 
Isolated arhinencephaly, ventral surface of brain (image)

 
Holoprosencephaly, in situ photograph, coronal section through skull (image)

 
Holoprosencephaly, ventral surface of brain. (image)

 
Holoprosencephaly, dorsal view of autopsy brain (image)

 
Alobar holoprosencephaly, Coronal section through brain (image)

 
Cyclopia in holoprosencephaly (image)

 
Meningioangiomatosis, low power H&E stained section of cerebral cortex and leptomeninges (image)

 
White Matter Neurons, neurofilament immunohistochemical stain (image)

 
White Matter Neurons in temporal lobe epilepsy. (image)

 
Focal cortical dysplasia, Palmini 2b, high power H&E stained section (image)

 
Focal cortical dysplasia, Palmini 2b, low-power overview of cerebral cortex (image)

 
Focal cortical dysplasia, Palmini 2a, high power view of cerebral cortex (image)

 
Focal cortical dysplasia, Palmini 2a, low power overview H&E stained section of cerebral cortex (image)

 
Focal cortical dysplasia, Palmini 1b, high power H&E stained section (image)

 
Focal cortical dysplasia, Palmini 1b, low-power overview. (image)

 
Focal cortical dysplasia, Palmini 1a, H&E stain (image)

 
Hippocampal endplate, H&E stained section (image)

 
Amygdala, high power H&E stain demonstrating innumerable corpora amylacea. (image)

 
Amygdala, H&E stained section (image)

 
Agenesis of the corpus callosum, coronal section demonstrating Probst bundle (image)

 
Agenesis of the corpus callosum, mid sagittal section, extreme close-up. (image)

 
Agenesis of the corpus callosum, mid sagittal view, close-up (image)

 
Agenesis of the corpus callosum, mid sagittal section through brain, close-up (image)

 
Agenesis of the corpus callosum, mid sagittal section through brain. (image)

 
Agenesis of the corpus callosum, coronal section through neonatal brain, close-up (image)

 
Septo-optic dysplasia, coronal section through brain at the level of the foramen of Monro (image)

 
Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus
Muscle Name: extensor carpi radialis longusAKA:  Abbreviation:  Spinal Nerve Roots:    C5    C6    C7Brachial Plexus Trunks:    upper trunk    middle trunkBrachial Plexus Cords:    posterior cordNamed Nerves:    radial nerveProximal Attachment:  Lateral supracondylar...
 
Extensor carpi radialis longus highlighted (image)

 
Prion Infections
Infection without inflammation – Prion diseases    A. PathogenesisHuman spongiform encephalopathies are a group of disorders that share certain clinical, pathological, and pathogenetic features. All cause a progressive, fatal, dementing illness; most...
 
Parasitic Infections
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan, found worldwide. It is now the most common cause of CNS mass lesions in patients with AIDS, occurring in 5-10% of AIDS patients. Toxoplasmosis may also cause eye disease (chorioretinitis) and congenital...
 
Fungal Infections
Aspergillus species grow on decaying vegetation and grain products, and are ubiquitous in the environment. Infection typically occurs in immunocompromised, usually neurtropenic,  hosts. Aspergillus may also rarely produce brain abscesses and granulomas in individuals with a normal immune system...
 
Deltoid
Muscle Name: deltoidAKA: musculus deltoideusAbbreviation:  Spinal Nerve Roots:    C5    C6Brachial Plexus Trunks:    upper trunkBrachial Plexus Cords:    posterior cordNamed Nerves:    axillary nerveProximal Attachment:  clavicle, acromion, spine of the scapulaDistal...
 
Viral Infections
The most common causes of viral meningitis in the U.S. are nonpolio enteroviruses (coxsackie and echovirus), which often occur in summer and early fall. Infection is by the fecal-oral route, with primary viral replication in the GI and upper respiratory tracts...
 
Bacterial Infections
Meningitis means inflammation of the meninges, usually (but not necessarily) due to infection. Although inflammation may selectively involve the dura (pachymeningitis), it more commonly affects the pia and arachnoid membranes (leptomeningitis). Because the...
 
Chronic meningitis with adhesive arachnoiditis obstructing CSF outflow, ventral surface of brainstem, close-up (image)

 
Pelizaeus Merzbacher disease, Coronal section, Close Up, labeled (image)

 
Alzheimer's disease, nucleus basalis of Meynert x 400 (image)

 
Alzheimer's disease, H&E stained section of hippocampus, low power magnification. (image)

 
Middle Deltoid EMG Technique (video)

 
Alzheimer disease, dorsal surface of brain. (image)

 
Alzheimer's disease, cerebral cortex, beta amyloid immunohistochemical stain (image)

 
Cerebral cortex demonstrating cotton-wool plaques (image)

 
Tumefactive demyelination, immunohistochemical staining for GFAP x 100 (image)

 
Tumefactive demyelination, immunohistochemical staining for CD68 (image)

 
Epidermoid cyst, high power H&E stained slide. (image)

 
Dermoid cyst, high power H&E stain (image)

 
Rathke cyst, low power H&E stain (image)

 
Rathke Cyst, H&E stained section, high power (image)

 
Craniopharyngioma, medium power H&E stained slide demonstrating "wet keratin". (image)

 
Craniopharyngioma, ventral surface of brain, close-up (image)

 
Craniopharyngioma, coronal section through hypothalamus (image)

 
Colloid Cyst, H&E stained section (image)

 
Collid Cyst, coronal section through third ventricle. (image)

 
Sneddon Syndrome, lateral surface of brain, close-up (image)

 
Sneddon Syndrome, dorsal view of brain. (image)

 
Multiple Sclerosis
Acquired, inflammatory leukoencephalopathiesInflammation may either be related to infection, or indicate the presence of an autoimmune process. Infection of oligodendroglial cells is unusual, and is practically confined to JC virus infection in immunocompromised...
 
Leukodystrophies
Leukodystrophies can be classified by their biochemical abnormalities into lipid disorders (e.g. adrenoleukodystrophy, globoid cell leukodystrophy, metachromatic leukodystrophy), protein disorders (e.g. Pelizaues-Merzbacher disease), organic acid disorders (e...
 
Demyelinating disease
Leukoencephalopathy is shorthand for a disease that preferentially manifests as damage to the white matter of the brain. While often referred to as “demyelinating diseases”, axonal damage is present in all of these disorders (in contrast to nearly...
 
Tumors III: Non-glial tumors
Meningiomas are the most common extraparenchymal neoplasms affecting the CNS, accounting for approximately 20% of intracranial tumors. They occur predominantly in middle to late adult life, and tend to involve the cerebral convexity, parasagittal region, sphenoid ridge or spinal cord...
 
Tumors II: Glial and Glioneuronal Tumors
A. Neurons 1. As differentiated neurons do not normally divide, tumors derived from such cells (ganglion cell tumors) are rare, and when they occur are usually benign.2. As the external granular cell neurons of the cerebellum are actively replicating and migrating...
 
Tumors I: Overview
General principles of neoplasia are applicable to CNS tumors1.The neoplastic cell must have a growth advantage within the microenvironment. Therefore, tumor cells tend to phenotypically resemble cells normally present within the CNS.2.The chance of transformational...
 
Sporadic JCD associated with type II prion, occipital neocortex, 3F4 immunohistochemical staining. (image)

 
Multiple cavernous angiomas, transverse section of pons, close-up (image)

 
Normal Skeletal Muscle - Gomori Trichrome (image)

 
NADH(TR) - normal muscle (image)

 
CD68 IHC - Example of pathological findings (image)

 
Ubiquitin - Example of pathological findings (image)

 
immunohistochemical staining using DAB chromogen. (image)

 
Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) stain of normal muscle. (image)

 
Congo Red - Example of pathological findings (image)

 
Oil red O stain of normal muscle. (image)

 
Deep anatomy of the right hand (image)

 
Superfical anatomy of the right hand. (image)

 
Deep anatomy of the right hand (image)

 
Toluidine staining of resin or plastic embedded peripheral nerve. (image)

 
Deep anatomy of the right hand (image)

 
Superfical anatomy of the right hand. (image)

 
Deep anatomy of the right hand (image)

 
Superfical anatomy of the right hand. (image)

 
Superficial Anatomy of the Right Hand (image)

 
Superfical nerves of the hand. (image)

 
Superfical nerves of the hand. (image)

 
Copy of Median Sensory Nerve - Recording the index finger (antidromic)
Origin:  C6-C7 roots, upper and middle trunk and lateral cord of the brachial plexus, median nerveRecording Site:  Index fingerReference Site:  Index fingerGround:  Palm or top of handStimulation Site:  WristProcedure:  The recording electrode is placed on the proximal phalanx of the index finger...
 
Median Sensory Study to Index (image)

 
Distal Median Nerve Anatomy (image)

 
Medial Antebrachial Cutaneous Sensory Nerve – Forearm (antidromic) (image)

 
Lateral Antebrachial Cutaneous Sensory Nerve (antidromic) (image)

 
Lateral Antebrachial Cutaneous Sensory Nerve (antidromic)
Origin:  C6 root, upper trunk and lateral cord of the brachial plexus,       Musculocutaneous nerveRecording Site:  Forearm (bar electrode)Reference Site:  Forearm (bar electrode)Ground:  ForearmStimulation Site:  ElbowProcedure:  The recording and reference...
 
Ulnar Palmar Mixed Nerve (orthodromic) (image)

 
Ulnar Palmar Mixed Nerve (orthodromic)
Recording Site:  Wrist over the ulnar nerve (bar electrode)Reference Site:  Wrist over the ulnar nerve (bar electrode)Ground:  Top of handStimulation Site:  Palm, between the 4th and 5th metacarpal bones.Procedure:  The recording and reference electrodes (bar...
 
Median Palmar Mixed Nerve (orthodromic) (image)

 
Median Palmar Mixed Nerve (orthodromic)
Recording Site:  Wrist over median nerve (bar electrode)Reference Site:  Wrist over median nerve (bar electrode)Ground:  Top of handStimulation Site:  Palm, between the 2nd and 3rd metacarpal bones.Procedure:  The recording and reference electrodes (bar electrode)...
 
Ulnar Sensory Nerve – Ring Finger (antidromic) (image)

 
Median Sensory Nerve - Ring Finger (antidromic) (image)

 
Radial Sensory Nerve (antidromic) (image)

 
Ulnar Sensory Nerve (antidromic) (image)

 
Median Sensory Nerve – thumb (antidromic (image)

 
Median Sensory Nerve - middle (antidromic) (image)

 
Radial Sensory Nerve (antidromic)
Origin:  C6-C7 roots, upper or middle trunk and posterior cord of the brachial plexus, radial nerveRecording Site:  Base of the FDI web space between the index finger and thumbReference Site:  Base of thumbGround:  Palm or top of handStimulation Site:  Radius...
 
Dorsal Ulnar Sensory Nerve (antidromic)
Origin:  C8 root, lower trunk and medial cord of the brachial plexusRecording Site:  Top of handReference Site:  Base of 5th fingerGround:  Top of HandStimulation Site:  WristProcedure:  The recording electrode is placed on the dorsum of the hand at the bottom...
 
Median Sensory Study to Index (image)

 
Extensor Pollicis Longus EMG Technique (video)

 
Extensor Pollicis Brevis EMG Technique (video)

 
Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus EMG Technique (video)

 
Supinator EMG Technique (video)

 
Flexor Digitorum Sublimis, Highlighted (image)

 
ALS
Also referred to as motor neurone disease (by the British), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive and ultimately fatal disorder characterized by degeneration of the upper and lower motor neurons of the brain and spinal cord. ALS occurs worldwide...
 
Parkinsonian neurodegenerative diseases
In 1817, James Parkinson wrote his Essay on the Shaking Palsy. He described a disorder manifest as involuntary tremulous motion…with a propensity to bend the trunk forward and to pass from a walking to a running pace: the senses and intellects being uninjured...
 
Other neurodegenerative diseases
Huntington Disease (HD) is inherited as an autosomal dominant disease with full penetrance. It occurs worldwide with an overall prevalence of 10 per 100,000 population (similar to the prevalence of ALS), although high regional concentrations are found due to large individual kindreds...
 
Deltoid (image)

 
Deltoid (image)

 
Brachioradialis
Muscle Name: brachioradialisAKA:  musculus brachioradialisAbbreviation:  Spinal Nerve Roots:    C5    C6Brachial Plexus Trunks:    upper trunkBrachial Plexus Cords:    posterior cordNamed Nerves:    radial nerveProximal Attachment: Lateral supracondylar ridge...
 
Brachioradialis (image)

 
highlighted_brachioradialis (image)

 
Brachioradialis (image)

 
Anconeus highlighted (image)

 
Anconeus (image)

 
Anconeus
Muscle Name: anconeusAKA:  musculus anconeusAbbreviation:  Spinal Nerve Roots:    C6    C7    C8Brachial Plexus Trunks:    upper trunk    middle trunk    lower trunkBrachial Plexus Cords:    posterior cordNamed Nerves:    radial nerveProximal...
 
Anconeus
Muscle Name: anconeusAKA:  musculus anconeusAbbreviation:  Spinal Nerve Roots:    C6    C7    C8Brachial Plexus Trunks:    upper trunk    middle trunk    lower trunkBrachial Plexus Cords:    posterior cordNamed Nerves:    radial nerveProximal...
 
Anconeus
Muscle Name: anconeusAKA:  musculus anconeusAbbreviation:  Spinal Nerve Roots:    C6    C7    C8Brachial Plexus Trunks:    upper trunk    middle trunk    lower trunkBrachial Plexus Cords:    posterior cordNamed Nerves:    radial nerveProximal Attachment: ...
 
Abductor Digiti Minimi
Muscle Name: abductor digiti minimiAKA:  musculus abductor digiti minimi manusAbbreviation:  ADMSpinal Nerve Roots:    C8    T1Brachial Plexus Trunks:    lower trunkBrachial Plexus Cords:    medial cordNamed Nerves:    ulnar nerveProximal Attachment:  pisiformDistal...
 
Normal samples
In order to recognize pathology, it is necessary to know what normal tissues look like. To that end, we present here a set of slides which depict normal anatomy, both on the gross and microscopic level. Throughout this course, whenever new pathologic concepts...
 
Alzheimer Disease
Alzheimer's Disease is the most common dementing illness and can occur at any age over 30. It tends to affect women more than men, even when survival differences are taken into account. It is relatively uncommon before age 65, affecting about 0.1% of the...
 
Vascular Disease 4: Other topics in vascular disease
Working from the outside in, intracranial hemorrhage may be epidural, subdural, subarachnoid, intraparechymal, or intraventricular in origin (though many do not remain localized to a single compartment). The term “hemorrhagic stroke” only applies...
 
Vascular Disease 3: Vascular anomalies
Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are the most clinically significant of the congenital vascular malformations (the others are less likely to become symptomatic and are more frequently incidental findings on examination of the brain for other reasons).  AVMs...
 
Vascular Disease 1: Reaction to ischemic injury
There are different types of ischemic injury.  Ischemia can affect the entire brain, or just a particular vascular distribution.  It can be brief, as in a TIA, or it can endure.  The patterns of damage we see in gross and microscopic pathology reflect the focality and temporal course of the ischemia...
 
A few words about Bacterial Meningitis
Meningitis means inflammation of the meninges, usually (but not necessarily) due to infection. Although inflammation may selectively involve the dura (pachymeningitis), it more commonly affects the pia and arachnoid membranes (leptomeningitis). Because the...
 
Viral Infections

 
Viral Infections

 
Viral Meningitis
A. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Encephalitis                                
 
Viral Meningitis
A. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Encephalitis                                
 
Viral Encephalitis
A. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Encephalitis 1. Pathogenesis HSV-1 encephalitis is the most common cause of acute sporadic encephalitis in the U.S. It typically causes lip and mouth lesions (herpes labialis and stomatitis). Note the distinction from HSV-2,...
 
Viral Encephalitis - MRI with arrow (image)

 
PLEDs (image)

 
Viral Encephalitis - MRI (image)

 
Infections

 
The Pathology of Alzheimer Disease
A.     Epidemiology AD is the most common dementing illness and can occur at any age over 30. It tends to affect women more than men, even when survival differences are taken into account. It is relatively uncommon before age 65, affecting about 0.1% of...
 
Routine upper extremity neck or arm pain and cervical root search.

 
Needle EMG Studies
A searchable, illustrated tutorial for electromyography (EMG). Describes innervation, anatomy, appropriate needle placement, and activation techniques for muscles commonly studied using EMG.
 
Cresyl Violet - Normal Example (image)

 
Bodian Stain - Normal Example (image)

 
Silver Stain - Senile Plaque (image)

 
Ragged Red Fiber, Trichrome stain (image)

 
hyaline inclusions trichrome x200 with arrow (image)

 
"Cytoplasmic" and "hyaline" bodies, trichrome stain x 200 (image)

 
Tubular aggregate, Gomori trichrome stain x 400 (image)

 
GFAP
Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is the major intermediate filament expressed in astrocytes and ependyma.  Immunohistochemical staining with antibodies specific for GFAP consequently highlights these cells. In the examples here, the regions which stain brown indicate the presence of GFAP...
 
H&E - Normal Example (image)

 
Alzheimer type 2 astrocytosis, H&E stain x 400 (image)

 
Alzheimer type 2 astrocytosis, H&E x 400 and (image)

 
CADASIL, H&E stain x 400 (image)

 
Bilateral cortical venous thrombosis, dorsal surface of brain. (image)

 
Superior sagittal sinus thrombosis, close-up of sectioned sinus (image)

 
Cortical venous thrombosis with hemorrhagic infarct, lateral surface of brain (image)

 
Cerebral venous infarcts, multiple coronal sections of brain (image)

 
Bilateral hemorrhagic infarcts, dorsal surface of brain. (image)

 
Diffuse cerebral edema, coronal section at the level of the thalamus (image)

 
Transtentorial herniation, ventral surface of brain. (image)

 
Transtentorial herniation, close up view of ventral surface of brain. (image)

 
Hemorrhagic necrosis, cerebellar tonsils, inferior surface including medulla. (image)

 
Granular Atrophy, close-up view of surface of cerebral cortex (image)

 
Etat Crible, close-up of cerebral cortex and white matter (image)

 
Circle of Willis, gross photographs of dissected arteries (image)

 
Thromboembolus, low power H&E stained section (image)

 
Thromboembolus, high power H&E stained section. (image)

 
Internal carotid artery occlusion, gross photograph of sectioned artery (image)

 
Basilar artery thrombosis, ventral surface of brain. (image)

 
Cavitated thalamic infarct, coronal section. (image)

 
Hemorrhagic infarct, posterior inferior cerebellar artery distribution, ventral surface of brain. (image)

 
Hemorrhagic infarct, transverse section through cerebellum and medulla. (image)

 
Organizing Infarct, sagittal section of cerebellum (image)

 
Circle of Willis Dissected - PCA (image)

 
Illustration of relevant anatomy (image)

 
For comparison, normal brain (image)

 
Recent middle cerebral artery infarct, whole mount coronal section through frontal lobe, anatomical landmarks (image)

 
For comparison, normal brain (image)

 
Recent middle cerebral artery infarct, whole mount coronal section through frontal lobe, labeled (image)

 
Cavitated MCA infarct, lateral surface of brain, labeled (image)

 
Pathology in Ischemic Stroke 03
127
 
Pathology in Ischemic Stroke 02
126
 
Pathology in Ischemic Stroke 01
125
 
For Comparison, MRI DWI - Acute Left PCA Infarct (image)

 
Posterior cerebral artery infarct, mid sagittal section of cerebral hemisphere, Labeled (image)

 
Triceps Brachii EMG Technique (video)

 
Opponens Pollicis EMG Technique (video)

 
Flexor Pollicis Brevis EMG Technique (video)

 
Flexor Digitorum Superficialis EMG Technique (video)

 
Flexor Digitorum Profundus To Digit 2 EMG Technique (video)

 
Flexor Digitorum Profundus To Digit 3 EMG Technique (video)

 
Flexor Digitorum Profundus To Digit 4 EMG Technique (video)

 
Flexor Digitorum Profundus To Digit 5 EMG Technique (video)

 
Flexor Carpi Radialis EMG Technique (video)

 
Extensor Carpi Ulnaris EMG Technique (video)

 
Pronator Teres EMG Technique (video)

 
Pronator Quadratus (video)

 
Flexor Carpi Ulnaris (video)

 
Extensor Digitorum EMG Technique (video)

 
Brachioradialis EMG Technique (video)

 
Biceps Brachii EMG Technique (video)

 
Anconeus EMG Technique (video)

 
Abductor Pollicis Brevis EMG Technique 2 (video)

 
The muscles of the palmar surface of the left hand. (image)

 
Opponens Pollicis
Muscle Name: opponens pollicisAKA:  Abbreviation:  Spinal Nerve Roots:    C8    T1Brachial Plexus Trunks:    lower trunkBrachial Plexus Cords:    medial cordNamed Nerves:    median nerveProximal Attachment: Trapezium and transverse carpal ligament.Distal Attachment: ...
 
Opponens pollicis highlighted (image)

 
Abductor Pollicis Brevis
Muscle Name: abductor pollicis brevisAKA:  Abbreviation: APBSpinal Nerve Roots:    C8    T1Brachial Plexus Trunks:    lower trunkBrachial Plexus Cords:    medial cordNamed Nerves:    median nerveProximal Attachment: Transverse carpal ligament, the scaphoid...
 
Flexor Digitorum Superficialis (image)

 
Flexor Digitorum Superficialis
Muscle Name: flexor digitorum superficialisAKA:  Flexor digitorum sublimisAbbreviation:  FDSSpinal Nerve Roots:    C7    C8    T1Brachial Plexus Trunks:    middle trunk    lower trunkBrachial Plexus Cords:    medial cord    lateral cordNamed Nerves:    median...
 
Pronator Teres
Muscle Name: pronator teresAKA:  Abbreviation:  Spinal Nerve Roots:    C6    C7Brachial Plexus Trunks:    upper trunk    middle trunkBrachial Plexus Cords:    lateral cordNamed Nerves:    median nerveProximal Attachment: Humeral head: medial epicondyle of...
 
Flexor Carpi Radialis highlighted (image)

 
Flexor Carpi Radialis highlighted (image)

 
Biceps Brachii with arrow (image)

 
Flexor Carpi Radialis with arrow (image)

 
First Dorsal Interosseous Muscle, Highlighted (image)

 
Biceps Brachii (image)

 
Extensor Digitorum (image)

 
Abductor Pollicis Brevis (APB) Muscle Highlighted (image)

 
Extensor Indicis (image)

 
Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus (image)

 
Triceps with arrow (image)

 
First Dorsal Interosseous (image)

 
Median Nerve
Nerve: Median NerveMuscles Innervated:    pronator teres    flexor carpi radialis    flexor digitorum superficialis    abductor pollicis brevis    opponens pollicis    pronator quadratus    flexor digitorum profundus to digit 2    flexor digitorum profundus...
 
Lateral Cord of the Brachial Plexus
Cord: Lateral CordMuscles Innervated:    pronator teres    flexor carpi radialis    flexor digitorum superficialis    pronator quadratus    flexor pollicis longus     biceps brachii
 
Triceps (image)

 
Medial Cord of the Brachial Plexus
Cord: Medial CordMuscles Innervated:    flexor digitorum superficialis    abductor pollicis brevis    opponens pollicis    pronator quadratus    flexor digitorum profundus to digit 2    flexor digitorum profundus to digit 3    flexor pollicis brevis    flexor...
 
Lower Trunk of the Brachial Plexus
Trunk: Lower TrunkSpinal Segments:C8, T1Muscles Innervated:    flexor digitorum superficialis    abductor pollicis brevis    opponens pollicis    pronator quadratus    flexor digitorum profundus to digit 2    flexor digitorum profundus to digit 3    flexor...
 
Middle Trunk of the Brachial Plexus
Trunk: Middle TrunkSpinal Segments:C7Muscles Innervated:    pronator teres    flexor carpi radialis    flexor digitorum superficialis    pronator quadratus    flexor pollicis longus     triceps    extensor carpi radialis longus    extensor carpi ulnaris   ...
 
Flexor Pollicis Longus
Muscle Name: flexor pollicis longusAKA:  Abbreviation:  FPLSpinal Nerve Roots:    C7    C8    T1Brachial Plexus Trunks:    middle trunk    lower trunkBrachial Plexus Cords:    medial cord    lateral cordNamed Nerves:    anterior interosseous nerve     median...
 
Flexor Carpi Ulnaris (image)

 
Flexor Carpi Radialis (image)

 
Flexor Pollicis Longus EMG Technique (video)

 
Extensor Indicis Proprius EMG Technique (video)

 
Abductor Digiti Minimi EMG Technique (video)

 
Abductor Digiti Minimi - Highlighted (image)

 
Abductor Digiti Minimi (image)

 
First Dorsal Interosseous Surface View with arrow (image)

 
First Dorsal Interosseous in Action with arrow (image)

 
Abductor Digiti Minimi Surface View with arrow (image)

 
Abductor Digiti Minimi Surface View (image)

 
First Dorsal Interosseous Surface View (image)

 
First Dorsal Interosseous in Action (image)

 
First Dorsal Interosseous Needle Placement (image)

 
First Dorsal Interosseous EMG Technique (video)

 
Pronator Teres, Highlighted (image)

 
Pronator Teres (image)

 
Abductor Pollicis Brevis EMG Technique (video)

 
Posterior Cord of the Brachial Plexus
Cord: Posterior CordMuscles Innervated:    triceps    brachioradialis    extensor carpi radialis longus    supinator    extensor carpi ulnaris    extensor digitorum    extensor pollicis longus    extensor pollicis brevis    extensor indicis    anconeus    deltoid
 
Musculocutaneous Nerve
Nerve: Musculocutaneous NerveMuscles Innervated:    biceps brachii
 
Axillary Nerve
Nerve: Axillary NerveMuscles Innervated:    deltoid
 
Radial Nerve
Nerve: Radial NerveMuscles Innervated:    triceps    brachioradialis    extensor carpi radialis longus    supinator    extensor carpi ulnaris    extensor digitorum    extensor pollicis longus    extensor pollicis brevis    extensor indicis    anconeus
 
Ulnar Nerve
Nerve: Ulnar NerveMuscles Innervated:    flexor pollicis brevis    flexor carpi ulnaris    flexor digitorum profundus to digit 4    flexor digitorum profundus to digit 5    abductor digiti minimi    first dorsal interosseous
 
Upper Trunk of the Brachial Plexus
Trunk: Upper TrunkSpinal Segments:C5, C6Muscles Innervated:    pronator teres    flexor carpi radialis    triceps    brachioradialis    extensor carpi radialis longus    anconeus    biceps brachii    deltoid
 
Brachial Plexus Trunks
Trunks:    Upper Trunk    Middle Trunk    Lower Trunk
 
Brachial Plexus Cords
Cords:    Medial Cord    Lateral Cord    Posterior Cord
 
Wallenberg Syndrome MRI with arrow (image)

 
Wallenberg Syndrome MRI (image)

 
Anatomical Landmarks Labeled (image)

 
Dorsolateral Medullary Infarct, transverse section, shaded (image)

 
Abductor Pollicis Brevis - EMG Demo (video)

 
Abductor Pollicis Brevis (image)

 
Insertion point for EMG study of Abductor Pollicis Brevis muscle (image)

 
Abductor Pollicis Brevis with arrow (image)

 
Abductor Pollicis Brevis
Name: Abductor pollicis brevisAbbreviation: APBAKA:Nerve: MedianCord: MedialDivision: AnteriorTrunk: LowerRoot: C8, T1Insertion: lateral approach to the base of the thumb, insert 1-2 cm in depthAction: Abducts the thumbActivation: Patient moves thumb perpindicular awas from the palm...
 
EMG Tutorial
Sandbox. Edit to your hear'ts content.
 
Sandbox
Sandbox. Edit to your hear'ts content.
 
Wallenberg Syndrome 1
53
 
Dorsolateral Medullary Infarct, transverse section. (image)

 
Dorsolateral Medullary infarct, multiple transverse sections through medulla (image)

 
Posterior cerebral artery infarct, mid sagittal section of cerebral hemisphere (image)

 
Recent middle cerebral artery infarct, whole mount coronal section through frontal lobe. (image)

 
Organizing Infarct, coronal section through thalamus with transverse section of spinal cord. (image)

 
Organizing Infarct, coronal section through parietal lobes. (image)

 
Cavitated MCA infarct, lateral surface of brain. (image)

 
Lacunar infarcts, pontine base, transverse section (image)

 
Fat Emboli, coronal section through unfixed frontal lobe (image)

 
Hemorrhagic necrosis, posterior cerebral artery circulations, coronal section through occipital lobes (image)

 
Bilateral cavitary necrosis, globus pallidus (image)

 
Anterior cerebral artery infarct, sagittal section through brain and brainstem. (image)

 
Hypotensive gray matter necrosis, transverse section of lumbar spinal cord (image)

 
Laminar Necrosis, coronal section at level of thalmus (image)

 
Eosinophilic Neuronal Degeneration, Hippocampus, H&E x40 (image)

 
Eosinophilic Neuronal Degeneration, Hippocampus, H&E x200 (image)

 
Eosinophilic Neuronal Degeneration, Cerebellum, H&E x200 (image)

 
Cerebellar Sclerosis, Sagittal sections (image)

 
Ischemic axonal damage, beta amyloid immunostaining x 100 (image)

 
Arterial border zone ("watershed") infarcts, coronal section through basal ganglia (image)

 
Arterial Border Zone Infarcts, coronal section through cerebral cortex and white matter, close-up (image)

 
Arterial Border Zone Infarcts, transverse section through cerebellum (image)

 
Temporal Artery, Surgical Exposure (image)

 
Primary angiitis of the nervous system, low power H&E stained section including leptomeninges (image)

 
Primary angiitis of the central nervous system, leptomeningeal blood vessel, high power H&E (image)

 
Juvenile temporal arteritis with eosinophilia, H&E stained section x 20 (image)

 
Juvenile temporal arteritis with eosinophilia, medium power H&E stained slide. (image)

 
Giant Cell Arteritis, H&E stain x400 (image)

 
Giant Cell Arteritis, H&E stain x40 (image)

 
Giant Cell arteritis, H&E stained slide x200 (image)

 
Giant Cell Arteritis, H&E stained x 100 (image)

 
Giant cell arteritis involving temporal artery, high power H&E stained slide (image)

 
Primary angiitis of the central nervous system, high power H&E stained slide (image)

 
Primary angiitis of the central nervous system, low power H&E stained section (image)

 
Venous angioma (malformation), H&E stain slide (image)

 
Arteriovenous malformation, H&E stain x 20 (image)

 
Foix-Alajounine syndrome, transverse section through spinal cord. (image)

 
Superficial siderosis, sagittal section through cerebellar vermis (image)

 
Multiple cavernous angiomas, coronal section of brain through basal ganglia and transverse section of pons. (image)

 
Cavernous angioma, H&E stained slide x 400 (image)

 
Cavernous angioma, H&E stain x 100 (image)

 
Cavernous angioma, trichrome stained section x 40 (image)

 
Cavernous angioma with dystrophic ossification, H&E stain x 100 (image)

 
Cavernous angioma, H&E stain slide (image)

 
Cavernous angioma, ventral surface of brain, close-up (image)

 
Arteriovenous malformation, coronal section through posterior parietal lobe (image)

 
Arteriovenous valve formation, coronal section through parietal lobe (image)

 
Arteriovenous malformation, coronal section, close-up (image)

 
Amyloid angiopathy involving temporal artery, Congo red stained section with polarization (image)

 
Temporal Artery, Congo Red stained section x 40 (image)

 
Temporal Artery with Amyloid, H&E stain x40 (image)

 
Amyloid angiopathy involving temporal artery, H&E stain x 20 (image)

 
Amyloid Angiopathy, Congo Red stained section (image)

 
Amyloid Angiopathy, Congo red stain with polarization. (image)

 
Thrombosed Basilar artery aneurysm, transverse section through pons (image)

 
Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, ventral surface of brain (image)

 
Ruptured saccular aneurysm, top of the basilar artery (image)

 
Ruptured MCA aneurysm, dissected (image)

 
Ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysm status post clipping (image)

 
Saccular aneurysm of posterior communicating artery, status post coil, ventral surface of brain, close-up (image)

 
Giant MCA aneurysm, ventral surface of brain. (image)

 
Giant saccular aneurysm, Circle of Willis, ventral surface of brain, close-up (image)

 
Diffuse cerebral edema, in situ photograph of dorsal surface of brain with dura (image)

 
Aneurysm Wall, high power trichrome stain (image)

 
Aneurysm wall, high-power movat pentachrome stain. (image)

 
Aneurysm wall, movat pentachrome stain x 40 (image)

 
Aneurysm wall, H&E stained slide x 40 (image)

 
Aneurysm wall, high power H&E stain (image)

 
Aneurysm wall, histochemical staining for elastin. (image)

 
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, horizontal section of brain through basal ganglia. (image)

 
Superficial cirrhosis, H&E stained slide x 400 (image)

 
superficial Siderosis, H&E stained section of medulla x 40 (image)

 
Superficial siderosis, ventral surface of brain. (image)

 
Fusiformvertebro-basilar aneurysm, dissected circle of Willis. (image)

 
Superficial cerebral cortical hemorrhages, coronal section through parietal lobe. (image)

 
Intramedullary spinal cord hemorrhage, transverse section through thoracic spinal cord. (image)

 
Intramedullary spinal cord hemorrhage, gross photograph of ventral surface of spinal cord (image)

 
Thalamic Hemorrhage, Coronal section of brain (image)

 
Putaminal Hemorrhage, Coronal section through brain (image)

 
Pontine Hemorrhage, multiple transverse sections through brainstem and cerebellum (image)

 
Pontine Hemorrhage, sagittal section of brain (image)

 
Ceerebellar Hemorrhage, transverse section through the cerebellum and Pons (image)

 
Intraparenchymal hemorrhage, horizontal section of brain (image)

 
Pineal Cyst demonstrating evidence of recent hemorrhage, close-up gross photograph (image)

 
Lobar Hemorrhage, Coronal section through parietal lobes (image)

 
Amyloid Angiopathy, immunohistochemical staining for beta amyloid, low power. (image)

 
Amyloid Angiopathy, immunohistochemical staining for beta amyloid (image)

 
Amyloid Angiopathy, H&E stain slide (image)

 
Glioneuronal Tumor with Neuropil Islands, medium power GFAP immunohistochemical stain (image)

 
Glioneuronal Tumor with Neuropil Islands, synaptophysin immunohistochemical staining x 100 (image)

 
Glioneuronal Tumor with Neuropil Islands, synaptophysin immunohistochemical staining x 40 (image)

 
Glioneuronal Tumor with Neuropil Islands, H&E stain x 200 (image)

 
Glioneuronal Tumor with Neuropil Islands, H&E stain x 40 (image)

 
Oligodendroglioma, H&E stain x 400 (image)

 
Oligodendroglioma, microcalcifications, H&E stain x 200 (image)

 
Oligodendroglioma, macrocalcifications, H&E stain x 40. (image)

 
Oligodendroglioma, Intraoperative smear preparation x 200 (image)

 
Oligodendroglioma, cortical invasion with perineuronal satellitosis (image)

 
Oligodendroglioma, minigemistocytes, H&E stain x 400 (image)

 
Oligodendroglioma, high power H&E (image)

 
Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma, H&E stained x 400 (image)

 
Central Neurocytoma, H&E stain x 100 (image)

 
Central neurocytoma, H&E stain x200 (image)

 
Central neurocytoma, Intraoperative smear preparation x 400 (image)

 
Lhermitte-Duclos disease, H&E stained section (image)

 
Lhermitte-Duclos disease, Whole Mount H&E stained section of cerebellum (image)

 
Lhermitte Duclos, Surgical Exposure (image)

 
Dysembryoplastic Neuroepithelial Tumor, Coronal section at the level of the parietal occipital junction. (image)

 
Dysembryoplastic Neuroepithelial Tumor, Ventral surface of brain, Close Up (image)

 
Dysembryoplastic Neuroepthelial Tumor, Ventral surface of brain (image)

 
Dysembryoplastic Neuroepithelial Tumor, H&E stain (image)

 
Desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma, H&E stain x400 (image)

 
Desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma, H&E stain x100 (image)

 
Desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma, H&E stain x400 (image)

 
Desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma, H&E stain x100 (image)

 
Angiocentric glioma, H&E stain x400 (image)

 
Angiocentric glioma, H&E stain x 20 (image)

 
Angiocentric glioma, synaptophysin immunohistochemical staining x 20 (image)

 
Angiocentric Glioma, high power H&E stain (image)

 
Longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis, extending into caudal brainstem, mid sagittal section of brain with arrows (image)

 
Ependymal Pseudorosette with arrow (image)

 
Brainstem Ependymoma, transverse section through brainstem, labeled (image)

 
fourth ventricular ependymoma, sagittal section through brainstem and cerebellum, labeled (image)

 
Posterior Fossa Sagittal, Labeled (image)

 
fourth ventricular ependymoma, sagittal section through brainstem and cerebellum, labeled (image)

 
For comparison, normal brain (image)

 
Tanycytic ependymomal of the posterior third ventricle, H&E stain x200 (image)

 
Myxopapillary Ependymoma, gross photograph of surgical resection (image)

 
Myxopapillary Ependymoma, intraoperative smear preparation x 200 (image)

 
Myxopapillary Ependymoma, Sagittal Section (image)

 
Myxopapillary Ependymoma H&E (image)

 
Myxopapillary ependymoma x40 (image)

 
Myxopapillary ependymoma, H&E stain x200 (image)

 
Myxopapillary ependymoma, H. and E. stain x200 (image)

 
Myxopapillary ependymoma, H&E stain x100 (image)

 
Myxopapillary ependymoma, mucicarmine histochemical staining x 40 (image)

 
Myxopapillary ependymoma, H&E stain x 40 (image)

 
Intramedullary spinal cord ependymoma, H&E stain x20 (image)

 
fourth ventricular ependymoma, transverse sections through brainstem and cerebellum. (image)

 
fourth ventricular ependymoma, sagittal section through brainstem and cerebellum. (image)

 
Ependymoma involving lateral ventricle, coronal section at the level of the basal ganglia (image)

 
Intramedullary Ependymoma, transverse section through spinal cord, H&E stain x 40 (image)

 
Ependymoma, intraoperative smear preparation, H&E stain x 400 (image)

 
Ependymoma, low power H&E stained section (image)

 
Ependymal Pseudorosette, H&E stained section. (image)

 
Brainstem Ependymoma, transverse section through brainstem (image)

 
Clear Cell Ependymoma, high power H&E stained section (image)

 
Anaplastic Ependymoma, high power H&E (image)

 
Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma, hypothalamic region, ventral surface of brain. (image)

 
Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma, Intraoperative smear preparation (image)

 
Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma, H&E stain x 200 (image)

 
Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma, Coronal sections through hypothalamus. (image)

 
Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma, Neurofilament immunohistochemical staining (image)

 
Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma, intraoperative smear preparation x 200 (image)

 
Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma, High power H&E stained section. (image)

 
Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma, GFAP immunohistochemical staining x 400 (image)

 
Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma x400 (image)

 
Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma x200 (image)

 
Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, H&E stain x 40 (image)

 
Thalamic Glioma, Sagittal section of autopsy brain (image)

 
Tectal Glioma, Transverse section through midbrain (image)

 
"Tectal Glioma", H&E stain x 200 (image)

 
Inflitrating Glioma, Thalamus H&E stain x200 (image)

 
Infiltrating Glioma, Thalmus, neurofilament immunohistochemical staining x 200 (image)

 
IIIrd ventricular glioma, H&E stain x200 (image)

 
IIIrd ventricular glioma x400 (image)

 
IIIrd ventricular glioma, H&E stain x100 (image)

 
Brainstem Glioma, ventral surface of brain, close-up. (image)

 
Brainstem Glioma, transverse section (image)

 
Leptomeningeal gliomatosis in a patient with brainstem glioma, gross photograph of cauda equina (image)

 
Pilocytic astrocytoma, H&E stain X600 (image)

 
Pilocytic astrocytoma, H&E stain x 200 (image)

 
Pilocytic astrocytoma, H&E x 100 (image)

 
Pilocytic Astrocytoma, H&E stain x 400 (image)

 
Pilocytic Astrocytoma x400 (image)

 
Pilocytic Astrocytoma x200 (image)

 
Pilocytic Astrocytoma x20 (image)

 
Pilocytic astrocytoma of optic nerve, with extension into optic nerve sheath, H&E stain x 40 (image)

 
Pilocytic astrocytoma of optic nerve ("Optic Glioma"), Gross Photograph of Resected Specimen. (image)

 
Lobar pilocytic astrocytoma, H&E stain x40 (image)

 
For Comparison, Normal Brain (image)

 
Basic Stains 01
416
 
Canavan disease, high powered PAS stained section of cerebral cortex, labeled (image)

 
Alexander Disease, cerebral cortex and white matter, H&E stained section, 20X magnification, labeled (image)

 
Alexander Disease, H&E stained section of cerebral cortex, 200 X magnification with arrow (image)

 
For Comparison, Normal Neuropil (image)

 
Normal Neuropil with structures highlighted (image)

 
Vanishing white matter disease (image)

 
Vanishing white matter disease, cerebral cortex and white matter, H&E stain x 40 with arrow (image)

 
For Comparison, normal neuropil (image)

 
For Comparison, Normal Neuropil (image)

 
Normal Neuropil with structures highlighted (image)

 
Vanishing white matter disease, H&E stain, 200 X magnification, labeled (image)

 
Vanishing White matter disease, H&E stain, high power, Labeled (image)

 
Frontal Coronal, Labeled (image)

 
ATPase - Example of pathological findings (image)

 
Commonly used stains
In this section, we'll go over some of the more commonly used stains in neuropathology.  Different stains might be used in different tissues.  For example, the Gomorri trichrome stain is especially helpful in muscle to find certain types of myopathy. ...
 
EM - Example of pathological findings with arrow (image)

 
Amyloid Angiopathy Congo Red (image)

 
Temporal Artery Congo Red, 40x, Polarized with arrow (image)

 
Temporal Artery Congo Red 40x, Polarized (image)

 
Congo Red (polarized) - Example of pathological findings (image)

 
Normal Cerebellum, Labeled with Letters (image)

 
Frontal Coronal, Labeled (image)

 
Other Immune Stains
Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining is the technique of using antibodies against a specific antigen (such as amyloid, CD68, ubiquitin, or GFAP) to label a tissue.  This technique is extremely versatile, since it can be applied to virtually any epitope to which a specific antibody can be created...
 
CD68 IHC - Example of pathological findings (image)

 
Electron Microscopy - Normal Example (image)

 
Electron Microscopy - Normal Example (image)

 
Electron Microscopy
In pathology-speak, Electron Miscroscopy is often referred to as EM or ultrastructural examination.EM is time consuming and technically challenging, but allows the visualization of structures much, much smaller than anything visible on light miscoscopy.  EM...
 
COX (Cytochrome Oxidase) Staining
Cytochrome oxidase (cox) is an oxidative enzyme in the electron transport chain.  Staining for cox is a sensitive method to assess capacity for oxidative metabolism. Type I muscle fibers have a higher capacity for oxidative metabolism than type II cells, which...
 
COX - Example of pathological findings with arrow (image)

 
COX - Example of pathological findings (image)

 
Cytochrome Oxidase staining - Example of pathological findings with arrow (image)

 
Cytochrome Oxidase staining - Example of pathological findings (image)

 
NADH - Example of pathological findings with arrow (image)

 
NADH - Example of pathological findings (image)

 
NADH
NADH is a marker for oxidative activity.  Histochemical staining for NADH can therefore give an indication of the relative oxitadive activity of a structure.  Among other things, NDAH staining can be used to differentiate Type I from Type II mucle fibers, or show the presence of central cores.
 
NADH - Example of pathological findings (image)

 
NADH - Example of pathological findings (image)

 
Structure of Skeletal Muscle - Schematic (image)

 
ATPase
ATPase stains are histochemical stains to assess the relative function of myofibrillar ATPase.  This is helpful in distinguishing Type I fibers from Type II fibers.ATPase stains differently depending on the pH at which the stain is performed.  At lower pH values (e...
 
ATPase - Example of pathological findings (image)

 
GFAP stain - Example of pathological findings (image)

 
GFAP staining - Example of pathological findings (image)

 
GFAP staining - Example of pathological findings (image)

 
H & E
H&E is short for Hematoxylin and Eosin.  The H&E staining method is the most commonly used stain in neuropathology.  It is a simple stain, and provides an excellent first look at the tissue of interest.Hematoxylin as a basic dye, and has an affinity for basophilic structures...
 
H&E Stain of a Pilocytic Astrocytoma (image)

 
H&E Stain of a Pilocytic Astrocytoma (image)

 
Glioblastoma multiforme, spinal metastasis, GFAP immunohistochemical staining. with arrow (image)

 
Monstrocellular Glioblastoma with arrow (image)

 
Glioblastoma multiforme, microvascular proliferation, H&E stain x 400, labeled (image)

 
Glioblastoma multiforme with granular cell differentiation, intraoperative smear x 400. with arrow (image)

 
Brainstem Glioma in Spinal Cord Transverse (image)

 
Glioblastoma multiforme, intraoperative smear preparation of drop metastasis, H&E x 100 with arrow (image)

 
For comparison, normal adult cerebellum (image)

 
For comparison, normal adult cerebellum with arrow (image)

 
For comparison, normal neonate cerebellum, with arrow (image)

 
For comparison, normal neonate cerebellum (image)

 
Glioblastoma multiforme involving cerebellum, H&E stain x 100, Labeled (image)

 
Anaplastic astrocytoma infiltrating corpus striatum, H&E stain x 200, labeled (image)

 
Glioblastoma multiforme, small cell variant, H&E stain x 200 with arrow (image)

 
Glioblastoma multiforme, pseudopallisading Necrosis, H&E stain x 200, Labeled (image)

 
Gliosarcoma , H&E stain x400 with arrow (image)

 
For comparison, normal neuropil (image)

 
For comparison, normal brain (image)

 
Glioblastoma multiforme, coronal section at level of posterior thalamus, labeled (image)

 
GBM - MRI with contrast (image)

 
GBM - MRI with contrast with arrow (image)

 
GBM - MRI with contrast sagittal with arrow (image)

 
GBM - MRI with contrast sagittal (image)

 
Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM)
Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is a WHO Grade IV primary brain tumor with a very poor prognosis. 
 
Astrocytomas
Glia is made up of astrocytes, ologodendrocytes, and ependymal cells.  Tumors that appear to arise from astrocytes are called astrocytomas.Astrocytomas are a varied group of primary brain tumors, and there are many subtypes. The prognosis and treatment will vary from subtype to subtype...
 
Lipoastrocytoma, H&E stain x100, labeled (image)

 
Optic Glioma Gross, Labeled (image)

 
Lobar pilocytic astrocytoma, H&E stain x40 with arrow (image)

 
Lobar pilocytic astrocytoma, H&E stain x200 (image)

 
Glioblastoma multiforme, pseudopallisading Necrosis, H&E stain x 200 (image)

 
Glioblastoma multiforme demonstrating pseudopalisading Necrosis H&E stain x 400 (image)

 
Glioblastoma multiforme, spinal metastasis, GFAP immunohistochemical staining. (image)

 
Glioblastoma multiforme involving cervical spinal cord, gross photograph. (image)

 
Glioblastoma multiforme, small cell variant, H&E stain x 200 (image)

 
Glioblastoma multiforme, microvascular proliferation, H&E stain x 400. (image)

 
Glioblastoma multiforme with granular cell differentiation, intraoperative smear x 400. (image)

 
Gliosarcoma , H&E stain x400 (image)

 
Gliosarcoma (glioblastoma multiforme with prominent spindle cell differentiation), H&E stain x200 (image)

 
Glioblastoma multiforme, coronal section at level of posterior thalamus (image)

 
Glioblastoma multiforme presenting as extramedullary spinal tumor (image)

 
Glioblastoma multiforme, intraoperative smear preparation of drop metastasis, H&E x 100 (image)

 
Glioblastoma multiforme involving cerebellum, H&E stain x 100 (image)

 
Glioblastoma Multiforme involving cerebellar white matter, H&E Stain X 40 (image)

 
Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma, Surgical Exposure (image)

 
Lipoastrocytoma, H&E stain x100 (image)

 
Gemistocytic astrocytoma, H&E stain x 100 (image)

 
Anaplastic astrocytoma infiltrating corpus striatum, H&E stain x 200 (image)

 
Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, intraoperative smear preparation x 400 (H&E stain) with arrows (image)

 
Primary Meningeal Melanoma, H&E stain x 400 (image)

 
Immature Teratoma of pineal region, H&E stain x 40 (image)

 
Immature Teratoma of pineal region demonstrating primitive retinal differentiation, H&E stain x 200 (image)

 
Tumoral calcinosis, H&E stain x 200 (image)

 
Sclerotic meningioangiomatosis, H&E stain x 100. (image)

 
Primary meningeal melanoma, H&E stained slide x 200. (image)

 
Menigioangiomatosis, H&E stain x 40 (image)

 
Meningeal Melanocytosis, H&E stain x 100 (image)

 
Meningeal melanocytosis, H&E stain x 40 (image)

 
Subependymoma of lateral ventricle, H&E stain x 100 (image)

 
Sacrococcygeal Teratoma, gross photograph of Cauda Equina (image)

 
Cystic hypothalamic hamartoma, gross photographs of surgically resected tumor (image)

 
Copy of Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumor (image)

 
Neuroblastoma with abundant neuropil and true rosettes, H&E stain x 100 (image)

 
Medulloblastoma containing reactive astrocytosis, GFAP immunohistochemical staining x 200 (image)

 
Medulloblastoma, reactive astrocyte, GFAP immunostain x 400 (image)

 
Medulloblastoma With Extensive Nodularity, H&E stain x 100 (image)

 
Medulloblastoma, mid sagittal section of brain (image)

 
Medulloblastoma with extensive nodularity, H&E stain x 40 (image)

 
Medulloblastoma with extensive nodularity, H&E stain x 200 (image)

 
Medulloblastoma, extensive leptomeningeal dissemination, ventral surface of brain (image)

 
Medulloblastoma, leptomeningeal dissemination, ventral surface of spinal cord. (image)

 
Homer Wright rosettes, H&E stain x 200 (image)

 
Desmoplastic medulloblastoma, Synaptophysin immunohistochemical staining x 100 (image)

 
Desmoplastic Medulloblastoma, H&E x200 (image)

 
Desmoplastic medulloblastoma, H&E stain x100 (image)

 
Desmoplastic medulloblastoma, reticulin histochemistry x200 (image)

 
Medulloblastoma, classic type, H&E stained slide x 200. (image)

 
Medulloblastoma, large cell anaplastic variant, H&E stain slide x 400 (image)

 
Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumor, ventral surface of brain. (image)

 
Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumor, intraoperative smear preparation x 600 (H&E stain). with arrow (image)

 
Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, sagittal section through cerebellum and brainstem, close-up, labeled (image)

 
For comparison, a tiger. (image)

 
For comparison, normal brain (image)

 
Copy of For comparison, Alexander disease (image)

 
For comparison, Alexander disease (image)

 
Krabbe disease, ventral surface of brain, highlighted (image)

 
Cockayne syndrome, multiple coronal sections of brain (image)

 
For comparison, normal brain (image)

 
Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumor Ventral with arrow (image)

 
Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, sagittal section through cerebellum and brainstem, close-up (image)

 
Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, BAF-47 immunohistochemical staining with arrow (image)

 
Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumor, intraoperative smear preparation x 600 (H&E stain). (image)

 
Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, H&E stain x 400 (image)

 
Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, intraoperative smear preparation x 400 (H&E stain). (image)

 
Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, BAF-47 immunohistochemical staining (image)

 
Krabbe disease, H&E stain x 100 with arrow (image)

 
For comparison, ventral surface of brain from someone without Krabbe disease (image)

 
Krabbe disease, coronal section, close-up, labeled (image)

 
Krabbe disease, H&E stained section, high power with arrow (image)

 
Pelizaeus Merzbacher Coronal Close Up (image)

 
Krabbe Sparing U Fibers Coronal (image)

 
Alexander disease, coronal section, close-up view, highlighted (image)

 
Adrenoleukodystrophy, horizontal section with arrow (image)

 
Alexander Disease on T2-weighted MRI (image)

 
Pineal region germinoma, H&E stain x 200 (image)

 
Leptomeningeal dissemination of germinoma, H&E stained section x 40 (image)

 
Germinoma, H&E stain x 400 (image)

 
Germinoma, H&E stain x 400 (image)

 
Germinoma, H&E stain x 400 (image)

 
Suprasellar germinoma, ventral surface of brain, close-up. (image)

 
Suprasellar germinoma, ventral surface of brain. (image)

 
"Pineal apoplexy", mid sagittal section of brain. (image)

 
Pineal region germinoma, H&E stained slide (image)

 
Miliary metastases ("carcinomatous encephalitis"), coronal section of brain, close-up (image)

 
Miliary metastases, cerebellum, low power H&E stained slide (image)

 
Metastatic malignant melanoma, ventral surface of brain. (image)

 
Metastatic melanoma, coronal section of brain at level of basal ganglia. (image)

 
Metastatic Malignant Neuroectodermal Tumor, coronal section of brain at the level of the thalamic nuclei. (image)

 
Metastatic carcinoma, cauda equina, gross photograph. (image)

 
Metastatic carcinoma, filling and distending the fourth ventricle, transverse section. (image)

 
Metastatic carcinoma, H&E stained section x 200 (image)

 
Metastatic carcinoma, H&E stained section x 100 (image)

 
Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis, ventral surface of brain. (image)

 
Intramedullary metastases, multiple transverse sections of spinal cord. (image)

 
Epidural metastatic carcinoma with cord compression. (image)

 
Carcinomatous meningitis, coronal section of occipital lobe of brain, close-up (image)

 
Rhabdoid Meningioma, H&E stained section (image)

 
Psammomatous meningioma, H&E stain. (image)

 
Papillary meningioma, high power H&E stained section. (image)

 
Microcystic meningioma, high power H&E stained section (image)

 
Metaplastic meningioma, myxoid type (image)

 
Metapastic meningioma with bone formation, H&E stain. (image)

 
Muscle invasion by meningioma, H&E stained section (image)

 
Meningioma invading brain, H&E stain. (image)

 
Meningioma, status post embolization, H&E stained section. (image)

 
Clear Cell Meningioma, high power H&E stained section (image)

 
Chordoid Meningioma (WHO Grade II), H&E stained section, medium power (image)

 
Atypical Meningioma (WHO Grade II) (image)

 
Secretory meningioma, H&E stain x400 (image)

 
Secretory meningioma, H&E stain x200 (image)

 
Rhabdoid Meningioma, high power H&E stained slide (image)

 
Rhabdoid meningioma, H&E stain x400 (image)

 
Rhabdoid meningioma, H&E stain x200 (image)

 
Rhabdoid meningioma, intraoperative smear preparation x 400 (image)

 
Papillary meningioma, low power H&E stained section (image)

 
Papillary meningioma, high power H&E stained section. (image)

 
Microcystic meningioma, high power H&E stain. (image)

 
Meningioma containing adenocarcinoma, intraoperative frozen section. (image)

 
Clear Cell Menigioma, H&E (image)

 
Chordoid Meningioma (WHO Grade II), H&E stained section, high power view. (image)

 
Meningioma, WHO grade I, H&E stain x 100 (image)

 
Meningioma (WHO GRADE I), H&E stain x40 (image)

 
Atypical meningioma invading bone (image)

 
Atypical meningioma, H&E stained section. (image)

 
Anaplastic meningioma, H&E stained section (image)

 
Anaplastic, brain invasive meningioma, ventral surface of brain. (image)

 
Anaplastic meningioma, coronal section of brain at level of thalamic nuclei. (image)

 
Hemangioblastoma, H&E stain x 200 (image)

 
Hemangioblastoma, H&E stain x 400 (image)

 
Cerebellar hemangioblastoma, H&E stain x 40 (image)

 
Hemagioblastoma,dorsal surface of cerebellum (image)

 
T cell lymphoma involving sural nerve, H&E stain x 40 (image)

 
Malignant lymphoma invading peripheral nerve root, x 40 (image)

 
Lymphoma peripheral nerve root, 200x (image)

 
Large B-cell, Burkitt-like lymphoma within brain parenchyma, H&E stained section x 200 (image)

 
Large B-cell Lymphoma Leg, H&E stained section (image)

 
Extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (MALToma) , intraoperative smear,H&E stain x 400 (image)

 
Extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (MALToma) of dura mater, H&E stain x 400 (image)

 
Leptomeningeal and perivascular spread of leukemic cells in a patient with AML, H&E stain x 100 (image)

 
Intravascular lymphomatosis, H&E stain x 400 (image)

 
Intravascular lymphomatosis, stereotactic biopsy, H&E stain x 400 (image)

 
Intravascular lymphomatosis, CD20 immunohistochemical staining (image)

 
Spine amyloidoma, H&E stainx 400 (image)

 
Plasmacytoma, intraoperative crush preparation x 400 (image)

 
Plasmacytoma, H&E stained slide x 400 (image)

 
Amyloidotic plasmacytoma, H&E stain x200 (image)

 
Amyloidoma, cerebral cortex, polarization microscopy after Congo red stain. (image)

 
Amyloidoma, cerebral parenchyma, H&E stain. (image)

 
Primary CNS lymphoma, H&E stain x 400 (image)

 
Primary CNS lymphoma, cerebral peduncle and midbrain, H&E stain x 40 (image)

 
Primary central nervous system lymphoma, CD20 immunohistochemical staining (image)

 
Primary central nervous system lymphoma, high power H&E stain (image)

 
Primary central nervous system lymphoma, intra-operative crush preparation x 600 (image)

 
Primary central nervous system lymphoma, reticulin histochemistry x 400 (image)

 
Primary central nervous system lymphoma, intra-operative crush preparation x 400 (image)

 
Primary central nervous system lymphoma, H&E stain x 200 (image)

 
Neurosarcoidosis, ventral surface of brain. (image)

 
Neurosarcoidosis, coronal surface of brain at the level of the optic chiasm. (image)

 
Perivascular granulomatous inflammation in a patient with neurosarcoidosis (image)

 
Granulomatous meningitis in a patient with sarcoidosis, H&E stain x 200. (image)

 
HIV encephalopathy, P24 immunohistochemical staining for HIV x 400 (image)

 
HIV encephalopathy, p24 immunohistochemistry x 200. (image)

 
HIV encephalopathy, H&E stain x 400 (image)

 
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, myelin stain, x 40 (image)

 
Cytomegaloviral infection, H&E stain X600 (image)

 
AIDS-related subependymal infection with enlarged cells demonstrating intranuclear inclusions, H&E stained section x 100 (image)

 
Rabies encephalitis, Negri bodies within the cytoplasm of cerebellar Purkinje cell neurons. (image)

 
West nile virus encephalitis, thalamus, H&E stained section (image)

 
West nile virus myelitis, H&E stained section (image)

 
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, whole mount of myelin stain section. (image)

 
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, JC virus immunohistochemical staining (image)

 
Progressive Multifocal leukoencephalopathy, horizontal section of brain. (image)

 
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, H&E stained section x 100 (image)

 
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, H&E stain section x 200 (image)

 
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, H&E stained section x 200 (image)

 
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, infected oligodendroglia cell x 600, H&E stain section. (image)

 
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, infected astrocyte, H&E stain X 600 (image)

 
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, immunohistochemical staining for JC virus. (image)

 
Herpes simplex encephalitis, ventral surface of brain. (image)

 
Herpes simplex encephalitis, coronal section through temporal lobe and basal ganglia. (image)

 
Herpes simplex encephalitis, coronal section through cingulate gyri, close-up. (image)

 
HIV encephalopathy, p24 immunohistochemical staining for HIV (image)

 
HIV encephalopathy, H&E stained section (image)

 
Cytomegalovirus infection in AIDS, coronal section through thalamic nuclei. (image)

 
Congenital cytomegaloviral infection, multiple coronal sections of brain. (image)

 
Congenital cytomegaloviral infection, lateral view (image)

 
Sporadic JCD, corpus striatum, 3F4 immunohistochemical staining (image)

 
Sporadic Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease, corpus striatal, H&E stain x 200 (image)

 
Kuru plaques, granular cell layer of cerebellum, H&E stain x 400 (image)

 
Sporadic Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease, stereotactic biopsy specimen, H&E stain x 400 (image)

 
Gerstmann Straussler Scheinker disease, cerebellar cortex, H&E stain x 200 (image)

 
Gerstmann Straussler Scheinker disease, cerebral cortex, H&E stain x 400 (image)

 
Variant Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease, H&E stained section of cerebral cortex x 200 (image)

 
Variant Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease, cerebral cortex, 3F4 immunohistochemical staining x 100 (image)

 
Variant Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease, cerebral cortex, 3F4 immunohistochemical staining x 400 (image)

 
Variant Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease, cerebral cortex, H&E stain x 400 (image)

 
Sporadic Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease, VV2 subtype, cerebellum, 3F4 immunohistochemical staining (image)

 
Sporadic Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease, VV2 subtype, sagittal section of cerebellum with control cerebellum (image)

 
Familial prion disease, cerebellum, 3F4 immunohistochemical staining (image)

 
Sporadic Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease, stereotactic biopsy specimen, H&E stain x 400 (image)

 
Sporadic Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease, occipital lobe neocortex, H&E stained x 40 (image)

 
Sporadic Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease, occipital lobe neocortex, H&E stain x 200 (image)

 
Sporadic Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease, occipital neocortex, 3F4 immunohistochemical staining x 40 (image)

 
Sporadic Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease, occipital neocortex, 3F4 immunohistochemical staining x 200 (image)

 
Sporadic Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease, cerebellum, H&E stain x 200 (image)

 
Sporadic Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease, cerebellum, 3F4 immunohistochemical staining x 100 (image)

 
Gerstmann Straussler Scheinker disease, cerebellum, H&E stained section, low-power (image)

 
Cerebral toxoplasmosis, coronal section through temporal lobe, close-up (image)

 
Cerebral toxoplasmosis, coronal section at the level of the thalamus (image)

 
Echinococcal Cyst, temporal lobe of brain, coronal section, close-up (image)

 
Cysticercosis, surgical specimen, hemisected, close-up (image)

 
Cysticercosis, surface of cerebral cortex, close-up (image)

 
Cysticercosis, horizontal section of brain, close-up (image)

 
Cysticercosis, coronal section of brain, close-up (image)

 
Cysticercus, H&E stain section, low-power (image)

 
Cysticercus, H&E stained section, high power (image)

 
Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis, coronal section, close-up (image)

 
The Plaque Thing!
303
 
Disorders of Ocular Motility 1
48
 
INO
45
 
The Plaque, Again
336
 
Myelin 04
389
 
Acute necrotizing hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis, outlined (image)

 
Demyelinative plaque, status post irradiation, coronal section, with outline (image)

 
Active demyelinative plaque, periventricular region, H&E stain x 40 (image)

 
Active demyelinative plaque, periventricular region, H&E stain x 40 with arrow (image)

 
Optic Neuritis, H&E stain x200 with arrow (image)

 
Optic Neuritis, H&E stain x100 with arrow (image)

 
Optic Neuritis, H&E stain x400 with arrow (image)

 
Multiple Sclerosis, ventral surface of brainstem, shaded (image)

 
Inactive demyelinated plaque, H&E stain section (image)

 
Multiple sclerosis, transverse section through pons and cerebellum with arrows (image)

 
Cryptococcoma, mucicarmine staining, high power with arrow (image)

 
Cryptococcoma, mucicarmine staining, high power (image)

 
Neonatal candidiasis, PAS stain whole mount section (image)

 
Candidial microabscess, PAS 600x (image)

 
Cryptococcoma, H&E stain section, high power (image)

 
Phaeomycosis, high power H&E stained section (image)

 
Phaeomycosis, PAS stained section x100 (image)

 
Phaeomycosis, low power H&E stained section. (image)

 
Phaeomycosis, Gomori methenamine Silver staining x 600 (image)

 
Phaeohyphomycosis, lateral surface of brain. (image)

 
Phaeohyphomycosis, coronal section of brain, close-up. (image)

 
Phaeohyphomycosis, basal lateral surface of brain. (image)

 
Mucormycosis, secondary to Zygomycetes infection, ventral surface of brain. (image)

 
Mucormycosis, secondary to Zygomycetes infection, coronal section through basal ganglia. (image)

 
Histoplasmoma, H&E stained section, high-power. (image)

 
Cryptococcal meningitis, coronal section, close-up view of cerebral cortex and meninges. (image)

 
Cryptococcal meningitis, high-power H&E stained section. (image)

 
Cryptococcoma, middle cerebellar peduncle, transverse section. (image)

 
Coccidiodes meningitis, high-power H&E stain (image)

 
Cranial nerve inflammation secondary to coccidial meningitis, H&E stained section (image)

 
Acute meningitis secondary to Coccidioides, cerebellum, low power H&E stain. (image)

 
Neonatal cerebral candidiasis, coronal section, close-up. (image)

 
Neonatal cerebral candidiasis, whole mount (image)

 
Cerebral aspergillosis, brain biopsy, high-power H&E. (image)

 
Cerebral aspergillosis, brain biopsy, low power H&E. (image)

 
Cerebral aspergillosis, coronal section through the rostrum of the corpus callosum (image)

 
Cerebral aspergillosis, coronal section, close-up. (image)

 
Nocardial abscess, Gomori methenamine Silver staining X 600 (image)

 
Nocardial abscess, Gomori methenamine Silver staining x 200 (image)

 
Gummatous neurosyphilis, low power H&E stained section (image)

 
Gummatous neurosyphilis, high power H&E stained section (image)

 
Acute cerebritis, high power H&E stained section (image)

 
Brain abscess, high power H&E stained section (image)

 
Tuberculoma, dorsal medulla, transverse section (image)

 
Potts disease, ventral surface of spinal cord, close-up (image)

 
General paresis (paretic dementia), ventral surface of brain. (image)

 
Congenital neurosyphilis, ventral surface of brain. (image)

 
Subdural empyema, dorsal surface of brain, in situ photograph (image)

 
Thick-walled cavity containing sterile fluid, thalamus, hard frontal section, close-up (image)

 
Cerebritis with early abscess formation, occipital lobe of brain, coronal section (image)

 
Nocardial abscess in immunocompromised host, modified acid fast (Kinyon) stain (image)

 
Multiple brain abscesses, lateral surface of cerebrum (image)

 
Brain abscess, coronal section of brain, close-up (image)

 
Basilar meningitis, secondary to tuberculous meningeal infection (image)

 
Acute bacterial meningitis, ventral surface of brain. (image)

 
Late-delayed radiation necrosis, low power H&E stain through cerebral cortex and white matter. (image)

 
Grinkers Myelinopathy, Crimbring stain for myelin, high-power (image)

 
Grinkers Myelinopathy, crimbring stain for myelin (image)

 
Late-delayed radiation necrosis, coronal section of brain (image)

 
Late-delayed radiation necrosis, coronal section of brain (image)

 
Acute methyl bromide toxicity, coronal section of brain, close up (image)

 
Grinker Myelinopathy, Close Up of coronal section of brain (image)

 
Grinker Myelinopathy (image)

 
Superior cerebellar degeneration, sagittal midline section of cerebellum (image)

 
Acute Lead Encephalopathy, Dorsal surface of brain. (image)

 
Tumefactive demyelination, H&E stained slide x 200 (image)

 
Tumefactive demyelination, low power H&E stain slide (image)

 
Tumefactive demyelination, intraoperative crush preparation x 200 (image)

 
tumefactive demyelination, brain/lesion interface, neurofilament immunostaining x 100 (image)

 
Tumefactive demyelination, H&E stain slide x 200 (image)

 
Tumefactive demyelination, H&E stained slide x 200 (image)

 
Tumefactive demyelinating lesion, GFAP immunohistochemical staining x 200 (image)

 
Tumefactive demyelination, frozen section preparation, H&E stain x 100 (image)

 
Tumefactive demyelination, brain/lesion interface, high power H&E stain (image)

 
Stereotactic biopsy of tumefactive demyelinating lesion, H&E stain x 20 (image)

 
Tumefactive demyelination, immunohistochemical staining for glial fibrillary acidic protein (image)

 
Tumefactive demyelination, high power H&E stained slide demonstrating perivascular inflammation (image)

 
Tumefactive demyelination, lesion/brain interface, medium power H&E stain slide (image)

 
Methotrexate neurotoxicity, H&E stain section, high power with arrow (image)

 
Methotrexate neurotoxicity, H&E stained section x 100 with arrow (image)

 
Tumefactive demyelination, low power H&E stained section labeled (image)

 
Tumefactive demyelination, intraoperative crush preparation with circled cells (image)

 
Tumefactive demyelination, low power H&E stained section (image)

 
Tumefactive demyelination, intraoperative crush preparation (image)

 
Machiafava-Bignami disease,Coronal sectioned through basal ganglia and cerebrum (image)

 
Leigh's disease, transverse section through midbrain (image)

 
Leigh's disease, coronal section through basal ganglia (image)

 
Tumefactive demyelination, H&E x 400 (image)

 
Tumefactive demyelination, H&E stain x 400 (image)

 
Demyelinative plaque status post irradiation, coronal section. (image)

 
Active demyelinative plaque, periventricular region, CD68 immunohistochemical staining (image)

 
Optic Neuritis, H&E stain x200 (image)

 
Optic Neuritis, H&E stain x100 (image)

 
Optic Neuritis, H&E stain x400 (image)

 
Multiple Sclerosis, ventral surface of brainstem (image)

 
Alexander Disease, cerebral cortex and white matter, H&E stained section, 20X magnification (image)

 
Perivent Plaque CD68 IHC - Outlined (image)

 
Longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis, extending into caudal brainstem, mid sagittal section of brain with arrow (image)

 
Well-demarcated MS Plaque - Highlighted (image)

 
Inactive demyelinative plaque, periventricular region of parietal white matter (image)

 
Acute necrotizing hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis (image)

 
Axon entering demyelinative plaque, ultrastructural section (image)

 
Inactive demyelinated plaque, H&E stain section (image)

 
Multiple sclerosis, transverse section through pons and cerebellum (image)

 
Longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis, extending into caudal brainstem, mid sagittal section of brain (image)

 
Longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis, ventral surface of cervical spinal cord (image)

 
Pelizaus-Merzbacher disease, Crimbring stained section of white matter (image)

 
Pelizaus-Merzbacher disease, H&E stained section of white matter (image)

 
Methotrexate neurotoxicity, H&E stain section, high power (image)

 
Methotrexate neurotoxicity, H&E stained section x 100 (image)

 
Canavan disease, high powered PAS stained section of cerebral cortex (image)

 
Canavan Disease, gray white junction, PAS stained section (image)

 
Alexander Disease, H&E stained section of cerebral cortex, 200 X magnification (image)

 
Vanishing White matter disease, thalamus, H&E stain section (image)

 
Vanishing White matter disease, mid sagittal section (image)

 
Vanishing white matter disease, cerebral cortex and white matter, H&E stain x 40 (image)

 
Vanishing white matter disease, H&E stain, 200 X magnification (image)

 
Vanishing White matter disease, H&E stain, high power (image)

 
Vanishing white matter disease (image)

 
Krabbe disease, H&E stain x 100 (image)

 
Pelizaeus Merzbacher disease, Coronal section, Close Up (image)

 
Krabbe disease, coronal section, close-up (image)

 
Krabbe disease, H&E stained section, high power (image)

 
Cockayne syndrome, ventral surface of brain (image)

 
Alexander disease, coronal section, close-up view (image)

 
Adrenoleukodystrophy, horizontal section (image)

 
Periventricular leukomalacia with organized hemorrhage, Berlin blue stain for iron (image)

 
Periventricular leukomalacia, low-power H&E stained section (image)

 
Periventricular leukomalacia with hemorrhagic transformation (image)

 
Periventricular leukomalaciawith advanced cavitation, right frontal lobe, coronal section. (image)

 
Periventricular Leukomalacia With Cavitation (image)

 
Neonatal brain, micro-injection of cerebral circulation (image)

 
Organizing periventricular leukomalacia, high power H&E stain (image)

 
Ulegyria, coronal section of brain, close-up (image)

 
Hypotensive brainstem necrosis, organizing phase, H&E stain (image)

 
Intrauterine Infarct Coronal (image)

 
Hypotensive Brainstem Necrosis (image)

 
Hypotensive brainstem necrosis (image)

 
Acute hypotensive brainstem necrosis, hypoglossal nucleus, H&E stain (image)

 
Multicystic Encephalopathy In Situ (image)

 
Multicystic Encephalopathy, horizontal section (image)

 
Multicystic Encephalopathy Coronal (image)

 
Multicystic Encephalopathy Brainstem (image)

 
Multicystic encephalopathy, whole mount, H&E stain (image)

 
Massive hydrocephalus following intraventricular hemorrhage. (image)

 
Intraventricular hemorrhage, coronal section (image)

 
Germinal matrix hemorrhage, low power H&E stain (image)

 
Sturge Weber disease, H&E stain, low-power (image)

 
Tuberous Sclerosis, coronal section demonstrating numerous subependymal nodules and a subependymal giant cell tumor in the septum pellucidum (image)

 
Cortical Tuber, medium-power hematoxylin and eosin stained section (image)

 
Neurocutaneous Melanosis Ventral Close Up (image)

 
Neurocutaneous Melanosis Ventral (image)

 
Cortical Tuber, low-power hematoxylin and eosin stained section (image)

 
Cerebral Tuber, Lateral (image)

 
Meningioangiomatosis, H&E stain, 40 X. magnification (image)

 
Alzheimer's disease, hippocampus, H&E 200x (image)

 
Alzheimer Disease, nucleus basalis of Meynert, H&E stain time 600 (image)

 
Alzheimer's disease, hippocampus Tau IHC 200x (image)

 
Alzheimer disease, hippocampus, beta amyloid immunohistochemical stain (image)

 
Alzheimer's disease, hippocampus, H&E stain x 400 (image)

 
Alzheimer's disease, tau immunohistochemical stain, neocortex x 200 (image)

 
PS1 familial Alzheimer disease, beta amyloid immunohistochemical stain, neocortex. (image)

 
Alzheimer's disease, occipital neocortex, King Silver x100 (image)

 
PS1 familial Alzheimer's disease, cotton-wool plaque, tau immunohistochemistry (image)

 
Alzheimer's disease, hippocampus, King Silver stain x200 (image)

 
Aged Downs syndrome, hippocampus, Bodian silver stain x 40 (image)

 
Alzheimer's disease, occipital lobe, H&E stain x40 (image)

 
Alzheimer's disease, hippocampus, King Stain x40 (image)

 
Alzheimer's disease-occipital neocortex x200 (image)

 
Alzheimer's disease-Hippocampus x40 (image)

 
Alzheimer's disease, globose neurofibrillary tangle within the locus ceruleus (image)

 
Alzheimer's disease, cerebral cortex, ubiquitin immunostaining (image)

 
Alzheimer's disease, ventral surface of brain (image)

 
Alzheimer's disease, dorsal surface of brain (image)

 
Early Alzheimer's disease, sagittal section of brain and brainstem (image)

 
Cerebellar plaques in familial Alzheimer's disease. (image)

 
Familial (PS1) Alzheimer's disease, cerebral cortex, H&E stain (image)

 
Familial Alzheimer's disease, cotton-wool plaque, H&E stain (image)

 
Senile (neuritic) plaque, King's silver stain (image)

 
Kugelberg Welander Ventral Spinal Cord (image)

 
Necrotizing vasculitis involving epineurial blood vessels. (image)

 
Necrotizing vasculitis involving epineurial arteriole (image)

 
Hereditary sensory and motor neuropathy, type 1, sural nerve, toluidine blue X 600. (image)

 
Hereditary sensory and motor neuropathy, type 1, sural nerve, toluidine blue x 400 (image)

 
Hereditary sensory and motor neuropathy, type 1, sural nerve, toluidine blue x 200 (image)

 
Diabetic neuropathy,Sural nerve, toluidine bluex600 (image)

 
Diabetic neuropathy, sural nerve, toluidine blue x200 (image)

 
Target fibers: NADH-TR stain (image)

 
Mitochondrial Inclusions (image)

 
Dysferlinopathy x100 (image)

 
Congenital muscular dystrophy x200 (image)

 
Diabetic thigh infarct x200 (image)

 
Tubular Aggregates H&E stain (image)

 
Gomori trichrome: Tubular aggregates x400 (image)

 
NADH stain: Tubular aggregates x400 (image)

 
Gomori trichrome: Nemaline myopathy x400 (image)

 
Gomori trichrome stain: hyaline inclusions x200 (image)

 
Centronuclear myopathy, Paraffin x200 (image)

 
Central Core Disease: NADH (image)

 
Central core disease: Cytochrome oxidase staining (image)

 
Core myopathy: ATPase stain (image)

 
How to edit online learning resource files (video)

 
Rosetted Glioneuronal Tumor IVth Ventricle H&E with arrow (image)

 
Chiari Malformations 03
247
 
Chiari Malformations 02
246
 
Chiari Malformations 01
230
 
Malformations 09
400
 
Malformations 07
399
 
Malformations 06
398
 
Malformations 05
397
 
Malformations 04
396
 
Malformations 03
395
 
Malformations 02
360
 
Congenital and Developmental Anomalies
This section deals with congenital and developmental anomalies.Each subtype of these is further addressed in the related pages links below.  You'll also find several review questions in the links below.
 
Malformations 01
359
 
Neurocutaneous 03
401
 
Meningiomas
In this section, there are dozens of images of meningiomas and their subtypes. There is also an excellent video, by Dr. Mark Cohen, providing an overview of meningiomas.  Enjoy!
 
NeurOnc 03
367
 
Fungal CNS Infections 02
73
 
Fungal CNS Infections 01
74
 
PAS candida WM 001 with arrow (image)

 
Normal brain for comparison (image)

 
Infections 01
350
 
Neurocutaneous Syndromes 01
59
 
Neurocutaneous Syndromes 07
344
 
Neurocutaneous 02
351
 
Neurocutaneous 01
349
 
Neurocutaneous 02
351
 
Neurocutaneous 01
349
 
Toluidine blue plastic embedded peripheral nerve 600x (image)

 
Illustration of the Neural Circuitry of the Cerebellum (image)

 
Reticulin stain Blood Vessel in CNS Lymphoma (image)

 
Pick Bodies, H&E (image)

 
NADH 400x (image)

 
King Silver Stain AD hippocampus (image)

 
HIV Encephalopathy mp (image)

 
Hippocampus Cresyl Violet Coronal (image)

 
Illustration of a hippocampal neuron (image)

 
Hippocampus Cresyl Violet Coronal (image)

 
Hirano Body 600x (image)

 
Bodian Silver Alzheimer Hippocampus (image)

 
Sporadic JCD in cerebellum, immune stain, high power (image)

 
Corpora Amylacea 400x (image)

 
Cresyl Violet Coronal Whole Mount (image)

 
Anterior Horn CV 400x (image)

 
Anterior Horn Cell Nissl 002 (image)

 
Arachnoid Cyst 100x (image)

 
Arachnoid Cyst 200x (image)

 
Arachnoid Cyst 40x (image)

 
Arachnoid Cyst 400x (image)

 
Anterior Horn 400 (image)

 
Anterior Horn Bodian 400x (image)

 
Adrenoleukodystrophy (image)

 
ACTH (image)

 
AD Occipital Neocortex Tau IHC (image)

 
Other Glial and Glioneuronal Tumors

 
Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophies

 
Example of trichrome stain (image)

 
Normal Cerebellum - labelled (image)

 
Negri Body from CDC Rabies page (image)

 
Rabies - Negri Bodies H&E with arrow (image)

 
Rabies - Negri Bodies H&E (image)

 
Photomicrograph of H&E stained brain tissue from a rabies encephalitis patient. with arrow (image)

 
Photomicrograph of H&E stained brain tissue from a rabies encephalitis patient. (image)

 
Normal Cerebellum for Comparison (image)

 
Negri Bodies - Labeled (image)

 
Normal Cerebellum for Comparison (image)

 
IVL cd20hp with arrow (image)

 
Adult Brain Tumor Pathology 01
347
 
Cbllr GBM with arrow (image)

 
Berlin Blue iron stain (image)

 
Other non-immune stains
These stains are ones that you may come across during your rotation or during your reading, but are less frequently used than the ones discussed elsewhere.These are all tinctorial stains, not immune or histochemical stains.Click any of the images below for...
 
Normal Neuropil 01
346
 
Normal Neuropil - Oligos (image)

 
Normal Neuropil for Comparison (image)

 
Normal Neuropil with structures highlighted (image)

 
Normal Neuropil (image)

 
Normal Neuropil - Highlighted (image)

 
Normal Neuropil - Basic Cell Types (image)

 
Normal Neuropil for Comparison (image)

 
Pseudopalisading Necrosis Explained (image)

 
Malignant Hyperthermia and Myopathy 01
342
 
Neurologic Sequellae of Nutritional Deficiencies 03
269
 
Neurologic Sequellae of Nutritional Deficiencies 02
120
 
Neurologic Sequellae of Nutritional Deficiencies 01
119
 
Toxicity and Characteristic Pathology 02
270
 
Toxicity and Characteristic Pathology 01
142
 
Bilateral Pallidal Necrosis Highlighted (image)

 
Bilateral pallidal necrosis (image)

 
Gomori Trichrome - Normal Example (image)

 
Normal Gyri for Comparison (image)

 
Poly Gyria Dorsal with arrow (image)

 
oligodendroglioma H&E with arrow (image)

 
Normal Neuropil for Comparison (image)

 
Neurooncology Most Commons 01
78
 
Pediatric Brain Tumor Pathology 01
237
 
Malignant Hyperthermia and Myopathy 01
342
 
Inclusion Body Myositis 01
131
 
Neuromuscular Disorders 01
209
 
<-- Click this thumbnail! See what happens! (video)

 
Specimen at 100X with arrow (image)

 
Specimen at 40X with arrow (image)

 
How to use the microscope
A brief and basic review on the use of the microscope.Many medical schools no longer require their students to learn how to use a microscope.  And yet, you may be in a pathology course where you are expected to look at microscope slides.  So here's a very...
 
Specimen at 200X (image)

 
Specimen at 100X (image)

 
Specimen at 40X (image)

 
Overview of the Microscope (image)

 
Basic Neuropathologic Reactions 5 (video)

 
Pathology of Epilepsy (video)

 
Parkinson Disease: Nature, Nurture, and Neurodegeneration (video)

 
Demyelinating Diseases (video)

 
Denervation, Dystrophy, and Disorders of Energy Metabolism (video)

 
Neuromuscular disorders 1: Myopathies and Dystrophies
There is a wide array of pathology associated with nerve and muscle diseases.  This section will go into categories of muscle and nerve disorders, and certain specific disorders in depth.  Try the most recent additions to this section - an overview by jdmiles...
 
Congenital Muscular Dystrophies
Like the classical congenital myopathies, the muscular dystrophies are genetically determined diseases of skeletal muscle.  Unlike the classical myopathies, there are not unique pathological findings, like nemaline rods or central cores.  So historically,...
 
Congenital Myopathies
There are many types of myopathies, and they can be categorized in many ways.  One category that has clinical utility is the congenital myopathies.  Congenital myopathies are genetic disorders which result in abnormalities in skeletal muscle. This section deals exclusively with congenital myopathies...
 
Clinical Features of Congenital Myopathies
Many of the congenital myopathies can present with similar clinical features.  Several vary in severity depending on age of onset:  Infantile FormsMay present as floppy baby syndrome.  Severe weakness.  Decreased spontaneous movement, followed by delay in meeting motor milestones...
 
Myopathy with Tubular Aggregates
Tubular aggregates are a fairly nonspecific finding.  They are found in many muscle disorders, including perioric paralyses, some myotonic disorders, ond some toxic myopathies. Tubular aggreagates look like this (click to enlarge):    References:Katirji, B...
 
Categories of Congenital Myopathies
The congenital myopathies are genetic diseases resulting in skeletal muscle abnormalities.  They are often apparent at birth, but may not manifest symptoms until later in life. Categorization of Congenital Myopathies Since there is considerable overlap in...
 
Reducing Body Myopathy
Reducing Body Myopathy is rare, and has a variable course.The defining feature is the presence of reducing bodies, which are small, roundish bodies that often are found near the nuclei in muscle fibers.  They can be visualized with trichrome.  It's unclear what they are...
 
Multicore Disease / Minicore Disease
Multicore Disease and Minicore Disease are synonymous terms.The disorder they describe is related to, but distinct from, central core disease.  In central core disease, the mitochondria-lacking cores run the whole length of the muscle fiber.  In minicore disease,...
 
Centronuclear Myopathy and Myotubular Myopathy
The terms myotubular myopathy and centronuclear myopathy are sometimes used interchangably.  Myotubular myopathy specifically refers to the infantile, X-linked form of the syndrome.  Centronuclear myopathy is used to describe forms inherited autosomally and with later onset...
 
Centronuclear Myopathy with arrow (image)

 
Nemaline Myopathy
Like many of the congenital myopathies, the features of nemaline myopathy tend to be more severe course if the disease initially presents in infancy.  A more moderate expression of the disease is expected if it presents in childhood.  There is a wide clinical...
 
Centronuclear Myopathy (image)

 
Central Core Disease
Like many of the congenital myopathies, the features of central core disease tend to be more severe course if the disease initially presents in infancy.  A more moderate expression of the disease is expected if it presents in childhood, and the disease relatively...
 
NADH stained skeletal muscle from a patient with CCD. (image)

 
CCD - ATPase with label (image)

 
Central Core Disease - ATPase stain (image)

 
CCD COX with arrow (image)

 
CCD NADH with arrow (image)

 
Nemaline Myopathy Voiceover
3
 
Nemaline Myopathy (image)

 
Nemaline Myopathy (image)

 
<-- Click this thumbnail! See what happens! (video)

 
This is an audio test
1
 
Sample Image with arrow (image)

 
Another test image with arrow (image)

 
Welcome to the Neuropathology course
Welcine to the neuropathology course!The pages, images, and multimedia files in this course should provide an ample introduction to neuropathology for a neurology resident. This course is designed to be adaptable to your style of learning, and how you approach the course is up to you...
 
Creutz Cell with arrow (image)

 
TLDL creutzfeldt cell with arrow (image)

 
Lewy Body x600 with arrow (image)

 
Basic Neuropathologic Reactions 4 (video)

 
Basic Neuropathologic Reactions 3 (video)

 
Basic Neuropathologic Reactions 2 (video)

 
Basic Neuropathologic Reactions 1 (video)

 
Clinical Pathology Conference - November 6 2008 (video)

 
Shared Educational Resources
This section contains recorded lectures on neuropathology.  LEGAL STUFF: These presentations may contain information which is subject to copyright.  Downloading or copying any of these files is prohibited.  Although this material, or portions of this material...
 
NADH - Normal Example (image)

 
Meningioma - Contrast CT (image)

 
Synuclein (image)

 
EM - Example of pathological findings (image)

 
H&E - Example of pathological findings with arrow (image)

 
H&E - Example of pathological findings (image)

 
Optic Pathway Glioma with arrow (image)

 
Optic Pathway Glioma (image)

 
Pilocytic Astrocytoma
Pilocytic astrocytomas are less common than diffuse astrocytomas, accounting for about 2% of all primary CNS tumors in all age groups.  However, they are the most common glioma in children.They frequently occur in the cerebellum, but can occur in other areas as well...
 
Gemistocytic Astrocytoma H&E with arrow (image)

 
Meningiomas (video)

 
How to reload questions on FrontalCortex.com (video)

 
This is a test with arrow with arrow (image)

 
This is another test
2
 
This is a test with arrow (image)

 
This is a test (image)

 
True ependymal rosettes x400 with arrow (image)

 
Ependymomas
Ependymomas are classified as glial tumors, although they also have epithelial properties.   They are common, accounting for 3%-9% of all brain tumors.  They can occur at any age, but are somewhat more common in children.40% of ependymomas occur in the first decade of life...
 
How to use this online course
This online course has many features which can help you learn what you need to know. 
 
Freidreich Ataxia Spinal Cord - Loss of Dorsal Columns (image)

 
Inclusion Body Myositis
Inclusion body myositis is an inflammatory myopathy. You can see rimmed vaucoles on trichrome, like in this imageNow I can type stuff here.   
 
Posterior Commissure Coronal with arrow (image)

 
Anterior Commissure Coronal - Caudate (image)

 
Anterior Commissure Coronal - Lateral Ventricle (image)

 
Gomori Trichrome
From an aesthetic point of view, the Gomori trichrome is my favorite muscle stain.  It also extremely helpful, and yields an abundance of the information.  A trichrome stain is a stain that highlights different chemical features in three different colors.  There are many trichrome techniques (e...
 
Basal Ganglia Coronal Close - Insula (image)

 
Basal Ganglia Coronal Close - Lat Ventricle (image)

 
Basal Ganglia Coronal Close - Fornix (image)

 
Basal Ganglia Coronal Close - CC (image)

 
Basal Ganglia Coronal Close - Nuc Accumbens (image)

 
Basal Ganglia Coronal Close - Claustrum (image)

 
Basal Ganglia Coronal Close - Putamen (image)

 
Basal Ganglia Coronal Close- Caudate (image)

 
Basal Ganglia Coronal Close - Septum (image)

 
Basal Ganglia Coronal Close - Internal Capsule (image)

 
Ragged Red Fiber Trichrome with arrow (image)

 
Tub Agg Trichrome x400 with arrow (image)

 
Circle of Willis
The circle of Willis is an anastamosis where the posterior circulation (those arteries derived from the vertebral arteries) and the anterior circulation (those arteries which arise from the carotid arteries) come together. The carotid arteries enter the skull along the anterior aspect of the neck...
 
Circle of Willis - Basilar with arrow (image)

 
Circle of Willis - Basilar (image)

 
Circle of Willis - ICA (image)

 
Copy of Circle of Willis Dissected - ICA (image)

 
Nemaline Trichrome x400 with circles (image)

 
Gomori Trichrome, showing nemaline rods (image)

 
Gomori Trichrome, showing inclusion bodies (image)

 
IBM trichrome with highlighted rimmed vacuoles (image)

 
Normal Coronal Cut Through the Thalamus (image)

 
Angiocentric glioma x400 with arrow (image)

 
hyaline inclusions trichrome x200 with arrow (image)

 
Anterior Commissure Coronal with arrow (image)

 
Circle of Willis Dissected - Ant Choroidal (image)

 
Circle of Willis Dissected - basilar (image)

 
Circle of Willis Dissected - SCA (image)

 
Circle of Willis Dissected - PCA (image)

 
Circle of Willis Dissected - PCOM (image)

 
Circle of Willis Dissected - ICA (image)

 
Circle of Willis Dissected - ACOM (image)

 
Circle of Willis Dissected - A2 (image)

 
Circle of Willis Dissected - A1 (image)

 
Circle of Willis Dissected - MCA (image)

 
Tuberous Sclerosis SEGA and Nodules with arrow (image)

 
Normal Cerebellum (image)

 
Alcoholic Cerebellar Degeneration with arrow (image)

 
Normal Cerebellum (image)

 
CCD COX with arrow (image)

 
Temporal Artery Surgical Exposure with arrow (image)

 
Inclusion Body Myositis H&E 200 with arrow (image)

 
Inclusion body myositis trichrome x200 with arrow (image)

 
Tub Agg Trichrome x400 with arrow (image)

 
IBM trichrome with highlighted rimmed vacuoles (image)

 
Inclusion body myositis x400 with arrow (image)

 
Trichrome IBM hp Inclusions (image)

 
HIV encephalopathy Multinucleated Giant Cell (image)

 
MRI Wernicke with Arrows (image)

 
Psammomatous Melanotic Schwannoma H&E (image)

 
GFAP hp (image)

 
GFAP island H&E hp (image)

 
schwannoma (image)

 
Primary Meningeal Melanoma H&E x400 (image)

 
Intestinal Ganglioneuromatosis H&E (image)

 
Spindle Cell Oncocytoma H&E (image)

 
Lymphocytic Hypophysitis H&E (image)

 
Lymphocytic Hypophysitis Synaptophysin IHC (image)

 
Normal Pituitary H&E (image)

 
Acidophil Stem Cell Adenoma H&E (image)

 
Crooke Hyaline Change Pituitary Adenoma (image)

 
Schwannomas 100 lp (image)

 
Schwannoma Antoni A& B (image)

 
SCHWAN HP (image)

 
Vestibular Schwannoma Ventral (image)

 
Schwannoma EMA (image)

 
Schwannoma GFAP lp (image)

 
Schwannoma Low Power (image)

 
Schwannoma LP (image)

 
Tanycytic Ependymoma H&E (image)

 
Chronic Wernicke Coronal (image)

 
Wernicke encephalopathy Pontine Tegmentum H&E (image)

 
Hippocampus Coronal (image)

 
Swiss Cheese Coronal Multiple (image)

 
Thalamus Coronal Close Up (image)

 
Thalamus Coronal (image)

 
Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy H&E (image)

 
Prion IHC cerebrum (image)

 
Prion IHC cerebellum (image)

 
Cysticercosis H&E Low Power (image)

 
Ecchordosis Physalifera (image)

 
Ischemic Micrenceohaly Lateral (image)

 
Posterior Fossa Arachnoid Cyst Sagittal (image)

 
Temporal Lobe Arachnoid Cyst Ventral (image)

 
Dandy-Walker Whole Mount Myelin (image)

 
PSP Globose NFT Substantia Nigra H&E (image)

 
Subthalamic NFT in PSP (image)

 
Thalamotomy for Parkinson Disease 1976 Coronal (image)

 
MSA Inferior Olive Synuclein High Power (image)

 
Pleomorphic LB x600 (image)

 
PSP Coronal Subthalamic (image)

 
ALS anterior horn cells ubiquitin UHC x100 (image)

 
ALS anterior horn cells ubiquitin UHC x200 (image)

 
Alzheimer Disease NFTin Locus Ceruleus H&E (image)

 
Dura Malt Lymphoma x100 (image)

 
Rosetted Glioneuronal Tumor IVth Ventricle H&E (image)

 
Cysts

 
Miscellaneous Tumors

 
Pituitary Tumors

 
Pineal Tumors

 
Nerve Sheath Tumors

 
Metastases

 
Other Hematopoietic Tumors

 
Primary CNS Lymphoma

 
Hemangioblastoma

 
Hematopoietic Tumors

 
Lhermitte-Duclos

 
DNT

 
Miscellaneous Perinatal

 
Porencephaly

 
Perinatal Disorders of Gray Matter

 
Multicystic Encephalopathy

 
Intraventricular hemorrhage

 
Storage diseases

 
Inflammatory Myopathy

 
Miscellaneous Demyelinating Diseases

 
Sarcoidosis
Sarcoidosis is not an infectious process. However, there are similarities in the appearance of sarcoidosis to the appearance of infection. It is helpful to view and contrast the two processes together.
 
Rachischisis

 
Mitochondrial disorders

 
Inborn errors of metabolism

 
Holoprosencephaly

 
Developmental and Congenital Anomalies Related to Epilepsy

 
Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum

 
Wernicke Encephalopathy (image)

 
Chronic Wernicke Coronal (image)

 
Acute Wernicke Midbrain Transverse (image)

 
Wernicke Encephalopathy

 
Gomori Trichrome Nemaline Rods 2 (image)

 
Gomori Trichrome Nemaline Rods 2 (image)

 
Amyloid
Amyloid staining can indicate the presence of senile (amyloid) plaques, or amyloidosis.
 
Copy of Example of immune staining (image)

 
Amyloid Angiopathy Labeled (image)

 
Temporary Image (image)

 
A Foot (image)

 
Temporary Image (image)

 
Amyloid Plaques on Immune Staining for Amyloid (image)

 
Silver Stain
The silver stain is not used clinically as commonly as it used to be.However, if you see a silver stain on the Boards, think of Alzheimer's disease and amyloid plaques.  
 
Acute neuronal necrosis cerebellum 2 (image)

 
Normal Cerebellum (image)

 
Neonatal Cerebellum
Neonatal cerebellum looks different from mature cerebellum. There is an external granule cell layer, which can be seen in these images as a rim of blue cells around the edge of the cerebellum.
 
Temporary Image (image)

 
Vascular Disease 1: Reaction to ischemic injury

 
Acute neuronal necrosis - cerebellum (image)

 
A Foot (image)

 
Temporary Image (image)

 
Amyloid Angiopathy Labeled (image)

 
Normal samples (image)

 
Normal samples (image)

 
Normal samples (image)

 
Normal samples (image)

 
Normal samples (image)

 
Normal samples (image)

 
Normal samples (image)

 
Normal samples (image)

 
Normal samples (image)

 
Example of immune staining (image)

 
Example of trichrome stain (image)

 
The phakomatoses
Sclerotic Meningioangiomatosis
 
The phakomatoses (image)

 
The phakomatoses (image)

 
The phakomatoses
Neurofibromatosis, type 1
 
Review of the relevant anatomy (image)

 
Review of the relevant anatomy (image)

 
Review of the relevant anatomy (image)

 
Review of the relevant anatomy
Erk.EEEK. Braaaak. 
 
Another test image (image)

 
Review of the relevant anatomy

 
Review of the relevant anatomy

 
Review of the relevant anatomy

 
Review of the relevant anatomy

 
Review of the relevant anatomy

 
Review of the relevant anatomy

 
Review of the relevant anatomy

 
Review of the relevant anatomy

 
Review of the relevant anatomy

 
Review of the relevant anatomy

 
Review of the relevant anatomy

 
Review of the relevant anatomy

 
Review of the relevant anatomy

 
Review of the relevant anatomy

 
Review of the relevant anatomy

 
Review of the relevant anatomy

 
Review of the relevant anatomy

 
Review of the relevant anatomy

 
Radiologic pathology

 
Cranial and spinal trauma

 
Neuromuscular disorders 2: Peripheral nerve

 
Neuromuscular disorders 3: Neuromuscular junction disorders

 
Neurodegenerative disease

 
Perinatal diseases

 
Metabolic, toxic, and nutritional diseases.

 
Vascular Disease 2: Vasculitides

 
Introduction to Neuropathology for Neurology Residents
Welcome to Introduction to Neuropathology for Neurology Residents.This course is designed to expose you to the basics of neuropathology.  We don't expect at the end of this course that you'll be able to diagnose neuropathologic zebras, or get a job as a neuropathologist...
 



Gallery Images



White Matter

 
Gyrus

 
Sodium-Potassium ATPase

 
Goldman Equation

 
Nernst potassium

 
Nernst sodium

 
nernst equation

 
cell sodium and potassium

 
cell sodium gradient

 
cell potassium gradient

 
Cell Membrane Detailed Diagram L

 
Neuron with oligodendrocyte and

 
Cell Membrane Detailed Diagram L

 
Cell Membrane Detailed Diagram B

 
Superior-Inferior whole body

 
Inferior

 
Superior

 
CT subarachnoid hemorrhage

 
CT subarachnoid hemorrhage

 
CT subarachnoid hemorrhage

 
Eustachi Nervous System

 
Olfactory nerves and olfactory b

 
CT SAH

 
Horizontal slice of gross brain

 
ACA infarct sagittal labeled

 
Alexia without agraphia resultin

 
MRI Fluent Aphasia with arrow

 
MRI - Enhancing Meninges with ar

 
MRI ADC acute right MCA stroke

 
MRI w GAD normal brain

 
MRI w GAD - enhancing meninges

 
MRI T2 Virchow Robin spaces

 
CT left ICH

 
CT dense MCA highlighted

 
MRI DWI left ACA stroke

 
CT left PCA stroke

 
MRI DWI fluent aphasia

 
MRI T2 meningioma

 
MRI T1 meningioma

 
MRI T1 Gad meningioma

 
MRI GRE left frontal meningioma

 
MRI FLAIR meningioma

 
MRI DWI meningioma

 
MRI ADC meningioma

 
CT left SDH

 
CT left SDH mass effect

 
CT SDH mass effect and midline s

 
CT SDH 2

 
CT SDH 1

 
CT R MCA stroke

 
CT Circle of Willis highlighted

 
T2 MRI MCA ACA highlighted

 
MRI T2 MCA ACA normal

 
MRI T2 semicircular canals

 
Normal head CT

 
CT dense MCA with arrow

 
CTA Right M1 occlusion

 
CT dense MCA

 
CT Circle of Willis

 
Lobes of the cerebral hemisphere

 
Brain Horizontal Cortex highligh

 
Brain Horizontal VHP

 
Grey Matter vs White Matter

 
NMJ

 
Myelin sheath

 
How myelin wraps around an axon

 
Oligodendrocyte

 
Neuron myelin segment

 
Neuron myelin

 
Neuron axon

 
Neuron dendrites

 
Neuron soma

 
Neuron with connections

 
Neuron with afferent connections

 
Neuron, numbered

 
Lateral

 
Medial

 
Rostral Caudal whole body

 
Parasagittal Plane

 
Rostral-Caudal

 
Ventral

 
Dorsal

 
Distal

 
Proximal

 
Anatomical Position

 
Planes of Section

 
Planes of Section Fish

 
Sagittal Plane

 
Coronal Plane

 
Horizontal Plane

 
Acanthameba 600x

 
ALS crim

 
Mona Lisa - Left Horner

 
MRI Right MCA stroke DWI

 
MRI acute R MCA stroke

 
Limbic Encephalitis H&E 200x

 
MRI T1 w Gad lacune

 
Achilles Reflex

 
Agraphesthesia

 
Alzheimer Disease

 
Anterior vs. Posterior Pituitary

 
Brachial Plexus

 
Brain Tumor Incidence In Childre

 
Broca's Aphasia

 
Cranial Nerve Hemorrhages

 
Cranial Nerves: Sensory, Motor,

 
Disdiadochokinesis

 
Hand Dermatomes

 
Hearing Loss In a Rock Band Memb

 
Horner's Syndrome

 
Huntington's Chorea

 
Hypothalamic Nuclei

 
Lumbar Disc Herniation Affected

 
Median Nerve Runs with Radial Ar

 
Myasthenia Gravis_Eaton Lambert

 
Ophthalmoparesis

 
Spinothalamic Tract

 
Superior vs. Inferior Brachial P

 
Syphilis Treatment

 
Ventricular System Of The Brain

 
Voice Hoarseness

 
Wernicke's Aphasia

 
Bear with arrow

 
Bear with arrow

 
Neuron - Soma

 
Neuron

 
CT Left MCA Infarct

 
Peripheral Nerve - Perineurium

 
Radial Motor NCS, Recording the

 
Radial Motor NCS, Recording the

 
Radial Motor NCS, Recording the

 
Radial Motor Nerve Conduction St

 
Median Sensory Nerve Conduction

 
Median Motor Nerve Conduction St

 
Median Motor Nerve Conduction St

 
Median Motor Nerve Conduction St

 
Median Motor Nerve Conduction St

 
Musculocutaneous Motor Nerve Con

 
Musculocutaneous Motor Nerve Con

 
Musculocutaneous Motor Nerve Con

 
Musculocutaneous Motor Nerve Con

 
Musculocutaneous Motor Nerve Con

 
Radial Sensory Nerve Conduction

 
Ulnar Sensory Nerve Conduction S

 
Ulnar Motor Nerve - Recording th

 
Ulnar Motor Nerve - Recording th

 
Ulnar Motor Nerve - Recording th

 
Ulnar Motor Nerve - Recording th

 
Ulnar Motor Nerve - Recording th

 
Ulnar Motor Nerve - Recording th

 
Ulnar Motor Nerve - Recording th

 
Ulnar Motor Nerve - Recording th

 
Ulnar Motor Nerve - Recording th

 
Ulnar Motor Nerve - ADM 2

 
Radial Sensory Nerve Conduction

 
Median Sensory Nerve Conduction

 
Median Sensory Nerve - Recording

 
Ulnar Sensory Nerve - Recording

 
Ulnar Palmar Mixed Nerve (o

 
Median Palmar Mixed Nerve (

 
Phrenic Motor Nerve Conduction S

 
Phrenic Motor Nerve Conduction S

 
Phrenic Motor Nerve Conduction S

 
Spinal Accessory Motor Nerve - r

 
Spinal Accessory Motor Nerve - r

 
Spinal Accessory Motor Nerve - r

 
Radial Motor NCS, Recording the

 
Radial Motor NCS, Recording the

 
Radial Motor NCS, recording from

 
Radial Motor NCS, Placement of e

 
Median-Ulnar 2nd Lumbrical-Inter

 
Median-Ulnar 2nd Lumbrical-Inter

 
NCS Median wrist-palm segmental

 
NCS Median wrist-palm segmental

 
NCS Axillary Nerve Erb's po

 
Saphenous Nerve – Sensory dist

 
Gray - Saphenous Nerve

 
Polyglucosan body disease, intra

 
Unstructured mini-core, electron

 
Normal skeletal muscle, H&E sta

 
Normal skeletal muscle, H&E stai

 
Leukemic infiltration of periphe

 
Normal skeletal muscle, ATPase s

 
Normal skeletal muscle, cytochro

 
Clival chordoma, H&E stain x 400

 
Chordoma (clivus), H&E

 
Non-neoplastic choroid plexus, H

 
Choroid plexus papilloma, H&E st

 
Papillary tumor of the pineal re

 
Basal ganglia germinoma, low pow

 
Meningioma, H&E stain x 200

 
Rosetted glioneuronal tumor of t

 
Rosetted glial neuronal tumor of

 
Pilomyxoid astrocytoma, H&E stai

 
Pilomyxoid astrocytoma, H&E stai

 
Pilocytic astrocytoma, intraoper

 
Meningeal hemangiopericytoma

 
Microcystic meningioma with adhe

 
Homer Wright rosettes, synaptoph

 
Angiocentric glioma, vimentin im

 
Astroblastomatous rosettes, H&E

 
Anaplastic giant cell ependymoma

 
Amyloid beta related angiitis,

 
Amyloid beta related angiitis, H

 
Anaplastic ependymoma, H&E x 400

 
Anaplastic ependymoma, microvasc

 
Rhomboids highlighted.

 
Latissimis dorsi highlighted

 
Supraspinatous nerve with arrow

 
This cartoon shows the infraspin

 
MSA Hot Cross Bun sign with arro

 
MSA Hot Cross Bun sign 2 with ar

 
MSA Hot Cross Bun sign 2

 
MSA Hot Cross Bun sign

 
Facial Nerve

 
Blink Reflexes – recording the O

 
Facial Motor Nerve – recording t

 
H-Reflex - recording the Soleus

 
Femoral Motor Nerve - recording

 
Tibial Motor Nerve - recording t

 
Tibial Motor Nerve - recording t

 
Peroneal Motor Nerve - recording

 
Peroneal Motor Nerve - recording

 
Medial and Lateral Plantar Mixed

 
Lateral Femoral Cutaneous Sensor

 
Saphenous Sensory Nerve – record

 
Superficial Peroneal Sensory Ner

 
Sural Sensory Nerve - recording

 
Spinal Accessory Motor Nerve - r

 
Axillary Motor Nerve - recording

 
Musculocutaneous Motor Nerve - r

 
Radial Motor Nerve - Recording t

 
Median and Ulnar motor nerves- R

 
Ulnar Motor Nerve - Recording th

 
Ulnar Motor Nerve - Recording th

 
Median Motor Study - Recording t

 
Supinator with arrow

 
Supinator with arrow

 
pronator quadratus highlighted

 
Flexor Pollicis Brevis with arro

 
Flexor digitorum profundus highl

 
Flexor Carpi Ulnaris highlighted

 
Tumefactive demyelination, H&E s

 
Central Pontine Myelinolysis, tr

 
Thoracic Spinal Cord Cross-Secti

 
Oligodendrocyte with arrow

 
Oligodendrocyte

 
Extensor carpi radialis longus h

 
Type 1 prion hippocampus IHC

 
Type 2 prion hippocampus H&E

 
Type 1 prion hippocampus H&E

 
Type 2 prion hippocampus IHC

 
Type 1 prion hippocampus IHC

 
Type 2 prion cerebellar IHC

 
Type 1 prion cerebellar IHC

 
Type 2 prion cerebellar IHC

 
Type 1 prion cerebellar IHC

 
Medial Antebrachial Cutaneous Se

 
Lateral Antebrachial Cutaneous S

 
Ulnar Palmar Mixed Nerve (o

 
Median Palmar Mixed Nerve (

 
Ulnar Sensory Nerve – Ring Finge

 
Radial Sensory Nerve (antid

 
Ulnar Sensory Nerve (antidr

 
Median Sensory Nerve – thumb �

 
Median Sensory Nerve - middle &#

 
Median Sensory Nerve – Ring Fing

 
Median Sensory Study to Index

 
Vitruvian RUE Ulnar

 
Vitruvian RUE Radial

 
Vitruvian RUE Medial Antebrachia

 
Vitruvian RUE Lateral Antebrachi

 
Vitruvian RUE Intercostobrachial

 
Vitruvian RUE Median

 
Vitruvian RUE Dorsal Antebrachia

 
Flexor Digitorum Sublimis, Highl

 
highlighted_brachioradialis

 
Anconeus highlighted

 
Viral Encephalitis - MRI with ar

 
Recent middle cerebral artery in

 
Recent middle cerebral artery in

 
Cavitated MCA infarct, lateral s

 
MRI DWI - Acute Left PCA Infarct

 
Posterior cerebral artery infarc

 
Opponens pollicis highlighted

 
Flexor Digitorum Superficialis w

 
Flexor Carpi Radialis highlighte

 
Flexor Carpi Radialis highlighte

 
Biceps Brachii with arrow

 
Flexor Carpi Radialis with arrow

 
First Dorsal Interosseous Muscle

 
Abductor Pollicis Brevis (A

 
Triceps with arrow

 
Abductor Digiti Minimi - Highlig

 
First Dorsal Interosseous Surfac

 
First Dorsal Interosseous in Act

 
Abductor Digiti Minimi Surface V

 
Abductor Digiti Minimi Surface V

 
First Dorsal Interosseous Surfac

 
First Dorsal Interosseous in Act

 
First Dorsal Interosseous Needle

 
Wallenberg Syndrome MRI with arr

 
Dorsolateral Medullary Infarct,

 
Wallenberg Syndrome MRI

 
Dorsolateral Medullary Infarct,

 
Insertion point for EMG study of

 
Hand, Palmar

 
APB_Highlited_deleteme

 
Abductor Pollicis Brevis with ar

 
Brainstem Ependymoma, transverse

 
fourth ventricular ependymoma, s

 
Posterior Fossa Sagittal, Labele

 
fourth ventricular ependymoma, s

 
Canavan disease, high powered PA

 
Alexander Disease, cerebral cort

 
Alexander Disease, H&E stained s

 
Vanishing white matter disease

 
Vanishing white matter disease,

 
Vanishing white matter disease,

 
Vanishing White matter disease,

 
Temporal Artery Congo Red, 40x,

 
Normal Cerebellum, Labeled with

 
Frontal Coronal, Labeled

 
EM - Example of pathological fin

 
COX - Example of pathological fi

 
Cytochrome Oxidase staining - Ex

 
NADH - Example of pathological f

 
Structure of Skeletal Muscle - S

 
Glioblastoma multiforme, spinal

 
Monstrocellular Glioblastoma wit

 
Glioblastoma multiforme, microva

 
Glioblastoma multiforme with gra

 
For comparison, normal adult cer

 
Glioblastoma multiforme involvin

 
Brain Pie Chart

 
Anaplastic astrocytoma infiltrat

 
Glioblastoma multiforme, small c

 
Glioblastoma multiforme, pseudop

 
Gliosarcoma , H&E stain x400 wit

 
Glioblastoma multiforme, coronal

 
Glioblastoma multiforme, intraop

 
GBM - MRI with contrast with arr

 
GBM - MRI with contrast sagittal

 
GBM - MRI with contrast sagittal

 
GBM - MRI with contrast

 
Lipoastrocytoma, H&E stain x100,

 
Optic Glioma Gross, Labeled

 
Lobar pilocytic astrocytoma, H&E

 
Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor

 
Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumor

 
For comparison, a tiger.

 
Pelizaeus Merzbacher disease, Co

 
Krabbe disease, ventral surface

 
Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumor

 
Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumor

 
Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor

 
Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor

 
Krabbe disease, H&E stain x 100

 
Krabbe disease, coronal section,

 
Krabbe disease, H&E stained sect

 
Alexander disease, coronal secti

 
Adrenoleukodystrophy, horizontal

 
Acute necrotizing hemorrhagic le

 
Demyelinative plaque, status pos

 
Active demyelinative plaque, per

 
Optic Neuritis, H&E stain x200 w

 
Optic Neuritis, H&E stain x100 w

 
Optic Neuritis, H&E stain x400 w

 
Multiple Sclerosis, ventral surf

 
Inactive demyelinated plaque, H&

 
Longitudinally extensive transve

 
Multiple sclerosis, transverse s

 
Cryptococcoma, mucicarmine stain

 
Methotrexate neurotoxicity, H&E

 
Methotrexate neurotoxicity, H&E

 
Tumefactive demyelination, low p

 
Tumefactive demyelination, intra

 
Perivent Plaque CD68 IHC - Outli

 
Longitudinally extensive transve

 
Well-demarcated MS Plaque - High

 
Rosetted Glioneuronal Tumor IVth

 
PAS candida WM 001 with arrow

 
Glioneuronal Tumor with Neuropil

 
Glioneuronal Tumor with Neuropil

 
TLDL hp

 
Temporal Artery with Amyloid 20x

 
Temporal Artery with Amyloid 40x

 
Toluidine blue plastic embedded

 
Tumefactive Demyelination CD68 I

 
Aneurysm Wall Masson Trichrome

 
Illustration of the Neural Circu

 
Reticulin stain Blood Vessel in

 
Rhabdoid Meningioma

 
Siderosis Medulla HP

 
Sturge Weber leptomeningeal angi

 
Glioneuronal Tumor with Neuropil

 
Glioneuronal Tumor with Neuropil

 
TLDL PLEOMORPH 200x

 
Pick Bodies, H&E

 
Pelizaus-Merzbacher

 
Pelizaus Merzbacher Crimbring

 
Polymicrogyria Coronal Whole Mou

 
NADH-TR target fibers

 
NADH 400x

 
Sporadic JCD in Neostriatum, H&E

 
Nerve Root Lymphoma 200x

 
Nerve Root Lymphoma 40x

 
Occ Am IHC

 
King Silver Stain AD hippocampus

 
Kuru HP

 
Lafora Bodies

 
MTX leuko HP

 
Glioneuronal Tumor with Neuropil

 
Grinkers Myelinopathy crim

 
Grinkers Myelinopathy crim HP

 
Gumma HP

 
HIV Encephalopathy mp

 
HIV Encephalopathy 400x

 
HIV Encephalopathy p24 immune st

 
HIV Encephalopathy p24 immune st

 
Hippocampus Cresyl Violet Corona

 
Illustration of a hippocampal ne

 
Hippocampus Cresyl Violet Corona

 
Hirano Body 600x

 
Immature Teratoma Anlage HP

 
Bodian Silver Alzheimer Hippocam

 
Calpainopathy FS 200x

 
Calpainopathy 200x

 
Calpainopathy 400x

 
Calpainopathy 600x

 
Canavan Disease Grey White PAS

 
Sporadic JCD in cerebellum, immu

 
Chordoid Meningioma

 
Churg-Strauss with Eosinophils

 
Corpora Amylacea 400x

 
Cresyl Violet Coronal Whole Moun

 
Cryptococcoma H&E

 
Anterior Horn CV 400x

 
Anterior Horn Cell Nissl 002

 
Arachnoid Cyst 100x

 
Arachnoid Cyst 200x

 
Arachnoid Cyst 40x

 
Arachnoid Cyst 400x

 
Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumor

 
Anterior Horn 400

 
Anterior Horn Bodian 400x

 
Alzheimer type 2 astrocytes 400x

 
Alzheimer type 2 astrocytes 400x

 
Alzheimer Disease nBMx600

 
Amyloid Angiopathy Congo Red pol

 
Amyloid Angiopathy Congo Red

 
Anencephaly Sag WM 001

 
Anencephaly Saggital Whole Mount

 
Aneurysm Wall Movat Pentachrome

 
AD hippocampus NFT and SP 400x

 
AD hippocampus BAM ihc 100x

 
AD hippocampus Tau IHC 200x

 
AD hippocampus 200x

 
AD hippocampus 40x

 
Acute Ischemia Cerebellum

 
Adrenoleukodystrophy

 
ACTH

 
AD Occipital Neocortex Tau IHC

 
Normal Neuropil - Neurons

 
Normal Cerebellum - labelled

 
Negri Body from CDC Rabies page

 
Rabies - Negri Bodies H&E with a

 
Rabies - Negri Bodies H&E

 
Photomicrograph of H&E stained b

 
Photomicrograph of H&E stained

 
Negri Bodies - Labeled

 
Negri Bodies

 
Normal Cerebellum

 
IVL cd20hp with arrow

 
Cbllr GBM with arrow

 
Normal Neuropil - Oligos

 
Normal Neuropil - Highlighted

 
Normal Neuropil - Basic Cell Typ

 
Pseudopalisading Necrosis Explai

 
Bilateral Pallidal Necrosis High

 
Gomori Trichrome Normal Muscle

 
oligodendroglioma H&E with arrow

 
Normal Neuropil for Comparison

 
Poly Gyria Dorsal with arrow

 
Gray2.png

 
Gray3.png

 
Gray4.png

 
Gray5.png

 
Gray6.png

 
Gray7.png

 
Gray8.png

 
Gray9.png

 
Gray11.png

 
Gray12.png

 
Gray14.png

 
Gray15.png

 
Gray16.png

 
Gray17.png

 
Gray18.png

 
Gray19.png

 
Gray20.png

 
Gray21.png

 
Gray22.png

 
Gray23.png

 
Gray24.png

 
Gray26.png

 
Gray27.png

 
Gray28.png

 
Gray29.png

 
Gray30.png

 
Gray31.png

 
Gray32.png

 
Gray33.png

 
Gray34.png

 
Gray35.png

 
Gray36.png

 
Gray37.png

 
Gray38.png

 
Gray39.png

 
Gray40.png

 
Gray41.png

 
Gray42.png

 
Gray43.png

 
Gray44.png

 
Gray45.png

 
Gray46.png

 
Gray47.png

 
Gray48.png

 
Gray49.png

 
Gray50.png

 
Gray51.png

 
Gray52.png

 
Gray53.png

 
Gray54.png

 
Gray55.png

 
Gray56.png

 
Gray57.png

 
Gray58.png

 
Gray59.png

 
Gray60.png

 
Gray61.png

 
Gray62.png

 
Gray63.png

 
Gray64.png

 
Gray65.png

 
Gray66.png

 
Gray67.png

 
Gray68.png

 
Gray69.png

 
Gray70.png

 
Gray71.png

 
Gray72.png

 
Gray73.png

 
Gray74.png

 
Gray75.png

 
Gray76.png

 
Gray77.png

 
Gray78.png

 
Gray79.png

 
Gray80.png

 
Gray82.png

 
Gray87.png

 
Gray88.png

 
Gray89.png

 
Gray90.png

 
Gray91.png

 
Gray92.png

 
Gray93.png

 
Gray94.png

 
Gray99.png

 
Gray109.png

 
Gray111.png

 
Gray112.png

 
Gray113.png

 
Gray114.png

 
Gray118.png

 
Gray122.png

 
Gray123.png

 
Gray131.png

 
Gray136.png

 
Gray139.png

 
Gray140.png

 
Gray142.png

 
Gray143.png

 
Gray144.png

 
Gray145.png

 
Gray146.png

 
Gray147.png

 
Gray148.png

 
Gray149.png

 
Gray150.png

 
Gray151.png

 
Gray152.png

 
Gray153.png

 
Gray154.png

 
Gray155.png

 
Gray156.png

 
Gray159.png

 
Gray160.png

 
Gray161.png

 
Gray162.png

 
Gray167.png

 
Gray170.png

 
Gray171.png

 
Gray172.png

 
Gray173.png

 
Gray174.png

 
Gray178.png

 
Gray179.png

 
Gray180.png

 
Gray181.png

 
Gray182.png

 
Gray183.png

 
Gray184.png

 
Gray185.png

 
Gray186.png

 
Gray188.png

 
Gray190.png

 
Gray191.png

 
Gray193.png

 
Gray197.png

 
Gray198.png

 
Gray199.png

 
Gray204.png

 
Gray206.png

 
Gray207.png

 
Gray208.png

 
Gray209.png

 
Gray210.png

 
Gray211.png

 
Gray215.png

 
Gray216.png

 
Gray217.png

 
Gray218.png

 
Gray219.png

 
Gray220.png

 
Gray221.png

 
Gray222.png

 
Gray223.png

 
Gray224.png

 
Gray225.png

 
Gray226.png

 
Gray227.png

 
Gray228.png

 
Gray229.png

 
Gray230.png

 
Gray231.png

 
Gray232.png

 
Gray233.png

 
Gray234.png

 
Gray235.png

 
Gray236.png

 
Gray237.png

 
Gray243.png

 
Gray244.png

 
Gray245.png

 
Gray246.png

 
Gray248.png

 
Gray249.png

 
Gray250.png

 
Gray251.png

 
Gray252.png

 
Gray253.png

 
Gray254.png

 
Gray255.png

 
Gray256.png

 
Gray257.png

 
Gray258.png

 
Gray259.png

 
Gray260.png

 
Gray261.png

 
Gray262.png

 
Gray263.png

 
Gray268.png

 
Gray269.png

 
Gray274.png

 
Gray275.png

 
Gray276.png

 
Gray277.png

 
Gray278.png

 
Gray279.png

 
Gray280.png

 
Gray281.png

 
Gray282.png

 
Gray283.png

 
Gray284.png

 
Gray285.png

 
Gray286.png

 
Gray287.png

 
Gray288.png

 
Gray289.png

 
Gray292.png

 
Gray294.png

 
Gray295.png

 
Gray296.png

 
Gray297.png

 
Gray298.png

 
Gray299.png

 
Gray300.png

 
Gray301.png

 
Gray302.png

 
Gray303.png

 
Gray308.png

 
Gray309.png

 
Gray310.png

 
Gray311.png

 
Gray314.png

 
Gray315.png

 
Gray316.png

 
Gray317.png

 
Gray318.png

 
Gray321.png

 
Gray326.png

 
Gray327.png

 
Gray328.png

 
Gray329.png

 
Gray330.png

 
Gray333.png

 
Gray336.png

 
Gray337.png

 
Gray338.png

 
Gray339.png

 
Gray340.png

 
Gray341.png

 
Gray342.png

 
Gray343.png

 
Gray344.png

 
Gray345.png

 
Gray346.png

 
Gray347.png

 
Gray348.png

 
Gray349.png

 
Gray350.png

 
Gray351.png

 
Gray352.png

 
Gray353.png

 
Gray354.png

 
Gray355.png

 
Gray357.png

 
Gray358.png

 
Gray359.png

 
Gray360.png

 
Gray365.png

 
Gray373.png

 
Gray375.png

 
Gray376.png

 
Gray377.png

 
Gray378.png

 
Gray379.png

 
Gray380.png

 
Gray381.png

 
Gray382.png

 
Gray383.png

 
Gray384.png

 
Gray385.png

 
Gray386.png

 
Gray387.png

 
Gray388.png

 
Gray389.png

 
Gray390.png

 
Gray391.png

 
Gray392.png

 
Gray393.png

 
Gray394.png

 
Gray395.png

 
Gray396.png

 
Gray397.png

 
Gray398.png

 
Gray399.png

 
Gray400.png

 
Gray401.png

 
Gray402.png

 
Gray403.png

 
Gray404.png

 
Gray405.png

 
Gray407.png

 
Gray408.png

 
Gray409.png

 
Gray410.png

 
Gray411.png

 
Gray412.png

 
Gray413.png

 
Gray414.png

 
Gray415.png

 
Gray417.png

 
Gray418.png

 
Gray419.png

 
Gray420.png

 
Gray422.png

 
Gray423.png

 
Gray424.png

 
Gray425.png

 
Gray426.png

 
Gray427.png

 
Gray428.png

 
Gray429.png

 
Gray430.png

 
Gray431.png

 
Gray432.png

 
Gray433.png

 
Gray434.png

 
Gray435.png

 
Gray436.png

 
Gray437.png

 
Gray438.png

 
Gray439.png

 
Gray440.png

 
Gray441.png

 
Gray442.png

 
Gray443.png

 
Gray444.png

 
Gray445.png

 
Gray446.png

 
Gray447.png

 
Gray448.png

 
Gray449.png

 
Gray451.png

 
Gray453.png

 
Gray454.png

 
Gray455.png

 
Gray456.png

 
Gray457.png

 
Gray458.png

 
Gray459.png

 
Gray460.png

 
Gray461.png

 
Gray462.png

 
Gray463.png

 
Gray464.png

 
Gray465.png

 
Gray466.png

 
Gray467.png

 
Gray468.png

 
Gray469.png

 
Gray470.png

 
Gray471.png

 
Gray472.png

 
Gray473.png

 
Gray474.png

 
Gray475.png

 
Gray476.png

 
Gray477.png

 
Gray478.png

 
Gray479.png

 
Gray480.png

 
Gray481.png

 
Gray482.png

 
Gray483.png

 
Gray484.png

 
Gray485.png

 
Gray486.png

 
Gray487.png

 
Gray488.png

 
Gray489.png

 
Gray490.png

 
Gray491.png

 
Gray492.png

 
Gray493.png

 
Gray494.png

 
Gray495.png

 
Gray496.png

 
Gray497.png

 
Gray498.png

 
Gray499.png

 
Gray500.png

 
Gray501.png

 
Gray502.png

 
Gray503.png

 
Gray504.png

 
Gray505.png

 
Gray506.png

 
Gray507.png

 
Gray508.png

 
Gray509.png

 
Gray510.png

 
Gray511.png

 
Gray512.png

 
Gray513.png

 
Gray514.png

 
Gray515.png

 
Gray516.png

 
Gray517.png

 
Gray518.png

 
Gray519.png

 
Gray520.png

 
Gray521.png

 
Gray522.png

 
Gray523.png

 
Gray524.png

 
Gray525.png

 
Gray526.png

 
Gray527.png

 
Gray529.png

 
Gray530.png

 
Gray531.png

 
Gray532.png

 
Gray533.png

 
Gray534.png

 
Gray535.png

 
Gray537.png

 
Gray538.png

 
Gray539.png

 
Gray540.png

 
Gray542.png

 
Gray543.png

 
Gray544.png

 
Gray545.png

 
Gray546.png

 
Gray547.png

 
Gray548.png

 
Gray549.png

 
Gray550.png

 
Gray551.png

 
Gray554.png

 
Gray555.png

 
Gray556.png

 
Gray557.png

 
Gray558.png

 
Gray559.png

 
Gray560.png

 
Gray561.png

 
Gray562.png

 
Gray563.png

 
Gray564.png

 
Gray565.png

 
Gray566.png

 
Gray567.png

 
Gray568.png

 
Gray570.png

 
Gray571.png

 
Gray572.png

 
Gray573.png

 
Gray574.png

 
Gray575.png

 
Gray576.png

 
Gray577.png

 
Gray578.png

 
Gray579.png

 
Gray580.png

 
Gray581.png

 
Gray582.png

 
Gray583.png

 
Gray584.png

 
Gray585.png

 
Gray586.png

 
Gray587.png

 
Gray588.png

 
Gray589.png

 
Gray591.png

 
Gray592.png

 
Gray593.png

 
Gray594.png

 
Gray595.png

 
Gray596.png

 
Gray597.png

 
Gray598.png

 
Gray599.png

 
Gray600.png

 
Gray601.png

 
Gray602.png

 
Gray603.png

 
Gray604.png

 
Gray605.png

 
Gray606.png

 
Gray607.png

 
Gray608.png

 
Gray609.png

 
Gray610.png

 
Gray611.png

 
Gray613.png

 
Gray614.png

 
Gray615.png

 
Gray616.png

 
Gray617.png

 
Gray618.png

 
Gray619.png

 
Gray620.png

 
Gray621.png

 
Gray622.png

 
Gray623.png

 
Gray624.png

 
Gray625.png

 
Gray626.png

 
Gray627.png

 
Gray628.png

 
Gray629.png

 
Gray633.png

 
Gray634.png

 
Gray635.png

 
Gray636.png

 
Gray637.png

 
Gray638.png

 
Gray639.png

 
Gray640.png

 
Gray641.png

 
Gray642.png

 
Gray643.png

 
Gray644.png

 
Gray645.png

 
Gray646.png

 
Gray647.png

 
Gray648.png

 
Gray649.png

 
Gray650.png

 
Gray651.png

 
Gray652.png

 
Gray653.png

 
Gray654.png

 
Gray655.png

 
Gray656.png

 
Gray657.png

 
Gray658.png

 
Gray659.png

 
Gray660.png

 
Gray661.png

 
Gray662.png

 
Gray663.png

 
Gray664.png

 
Gray665.png

 
Gray666.png

 
Gray667.png

 
Gray668.png

 
Gray669.png

 
Gray670.png

 
Gray671.png

 
Gray672.png

 
Gray673.png

 
Gray674.png

 
Gray675.png

 
Gray676.png

 
Gray677.png

 
Gray678.png

 
Gray680.png

 
Gray681.png

 
Gray686.png

 
Gray687.png

 
Gray688.png

 
Gray691.png

 
Gray692.png

 
Gray693.png

 
Gray694.png

 
Gray695.png

 
Gray696.png

 
Gray697.png

 
Gray698.png

 
Gray699.png

 
Gray700.png

 
Gray701.png

 
Gray702.png

 
Gray703.png

 
Gray704.png

 
Gray705.png

 
Gray707.png

 
Gray708.png

 
Gray709.png

 
Gray710.png

 
Gray713.png

 
Gray714.png

 
Gray715.png

 
Gray716.png

 
Gray718.png

 
Gray719.png

 
Gray720.png

 
Gray721.png

 
Gray722.png

 
Gray723.png

 
Gray725.png

 
Gray726.png

 
Gray727.png

 
Gray728.png

 
Gray730.png

 
Gray731.png

 
Gray732.png

 
Gray734.png

 
Gray735.png

 
Gray736.png

 
Gray738.png

 
Gray739.png

 
Gray741.png

 
Gray742.png

 
Gray743.png

 
Gray744.png

 
Gray745.png

 
Gray746.png

 
Gray747.png

 
Gray748.png

 
Gray749.png

 
Gray750.png

 
Gray751.png

 
Gray752.png

 
Gray754.png

 
Gray755.png

 
Gray756.png

 
Gray757.png

 
Gray758.png

 
Gray759.png

 
Gray760.png

 
Gray761.png

 
Gray762.png

 
Gray763.png

 
Gray764.png

 
Gray765.png

 
Gray767.png

 
Gray768.png

 
Gray769.png

 
Gray770.png

 
Gray771.png

 
Gray773.png

 
Gray774.png

 
Gray776.png

 
Gray777.png

 
Gray778.png

 
Gray779.png

 
Gray780.png

 
Gray781.png

 
Gray782.png

 
Gray783.png

 
Gray784.png

 
Gray785.png

 
Gray786.png

 
Gray787.png

 
Gray788.png

 
Gray789.png

 
Gray790.png

 
Gray791.png

 
Gray792.png

 
Gray793.png

 
Gray794.png

 
Gray795.png

 
Gray796.png

 
Gray799.png

 
Gray800.png

 
Gray801.png

 
Gray802.png

 
Gray803.png

 
Gray804.png

 
Gray805.png

 
Gray806.png

 
Gray807.png

 
Gray808.png

 
Gray809.png

 
Gray810.png

 
Gray811.png

 
Gray812.png

 
Gray813.png

 
Gray814.png

 
Gray816.png

 
Gray818.png

 
Gray819.png

 
Gray820.png

 
Gray821.png

 
Gray823.png

 
Gray824.png

 
Gray825.png

 
Gray826.png

 
Gray827.png

 
Gray829.png

 
Gray830.png

 
Gray831.png

 
Gray832.png

 
Gray833.png

 
Gray834.png

 
Gray835.png

 
Gray836.png

 
Gray837.png

 
Gray838.png

 
Gray839.png

 
Gray840.png

 
Gray841.png

 
Gray842.png

 
Gray843.png

 
Gray844.png

 
Gray845.png

 
Gray846.png

 
Gray847.png

 
Gray848.png

 
Gray849.png

 
Gray850.png

 
Gray851.png

 
Gray852.png

 
Gray853.png

 
Gray854.png

 
Gray856.png

 
Gray857.png

 
Gray858.png

 
Gray860.png

 
Gray861.png

 
Gray862.png

 
Gray863.png

 
Gray864.png

 
Gray865.png

 
Gray866.png

 
Gray867.png

 
Gray869.png

 
Gray870.png

 
Gray871.png

 
Gray872.png

 
Gray873.png

 
Gray874.png

 
Gray875.png

 
Gray876.png

 
Gray877.png

 
Gray879.png

 
Gray880.png

 
Gray883.png

 
Gray884.png

 
Gray885.png

 
Gray886.png

 
Gray887.png

 
Gray888.png

 
Gray889.png

 
Gray890.png

 
Gray891.png

 
Gray892.png

 
Gray893.png

 
Gray894.png

 
Gray895.png

 
Gray896.png

 
Gray898.png

 
Gray899.png

 
Gray900.png

 
Gray901.png

 
Gray902.png

 
Gray903.png

 
Gray904.png

 
Gray905.png

 
Gray906.png

 
Gray907.png

 
Gray908.png

 
Gray909.png

 
Gray910.png

 
Gray911.png

 
Gray912.png

 
Gray913.png

 
Gray914.png

 
Gray916.png

 
Gray917.png

 
Gray919.png

 
Gray920.png

 
Gray921.png

 
Gray922.png

 
Gray923.png

 
Gray924.png

 
Gray925.png

 
Gray926.png

 
Gray927.png

 
Gray928.png

 
Gray929.png

 
Gray930.png

 
Gray931.png

 
Gray932.png

 
Gray933.png

 
Gray935.png

 
Gray936.png

 
Gray938.png

 
Gray939.png

 
Gray940.png

 
Gray942.png

 
Gray943.png

 
Gray944.png

 
Gray945.png

 
Gray946.png

 
Gray947.png

 
Gray948.png

 
Gray949.png

 
Gray950.png

 
Gray951.png

 
Gray952.png

 
Gray953.png

 
Gray954.png

 
Gray955.png

 
Gray957.png

 
Gray959.png

 
Gray960.png

 
Gray961.png

 
Gray962.png

 
Gray963.png

 
Gray964.png

 
Gray965.png

 
Gray966.png

 
Gray967.png

 
Gray968.png

 
Gray969.png

 
Gray970.png

 
Gray971.png

 
Gray972.png

 
Gray974.png

 
Gray975.png

 
Gray976.png

 
Gray977.png

 
Gray978.png

 
Gray979.png

 
Gray980.png

 
Gray981.png

 
Gray982.png

 
Gray983.png

 
Gray984.png

 
Gray985.png

 
Gray986.png

 
Gray987.png

 
Gray988.png

 
Gray989.png

 
Gray990.png

 
Gray991.png

 
Gray992.png

 
Gray993.png

 
Gray994.png

 
Gray995.png

 
Gray996.png

 
Gray997.png

 
Gray999.png

 
Gray1000.png

 
Gray1001.png

 
Gray1002.png

 
Gray1003.png

 
Gray1004.png

 
Gray1005.png

 
Gray1006.png

 
Gray1007.png

 
Gray1008.png

 
Gray1009.png

 
Gray1010.png

 
Gray1011.png

 
Gray1012.png

 
Gray1013.png

 
Gray1014.png

 
Gray1015.png

 
Gray1018.png

 
Gray1019.png

 
Gray1020.png

 
Gray1021.png

 
Gray1022.png

 
Gray1023.png

 
Gray1024.png

 
Gray1026.png

 
Gray1027.png

 
Gray1028.png

 
Gray1029.png

 
Gray1030.png

 
Gray1031.png

 
Gray1032.png

 
Gray1033.png

 
Gray1034.png

 
Gray1035.png

 
Gray1036.png

 
Gray1037.png

 
Gray1038.png

 
Gray1039.png

 
Gray1040.png

 
Gray1041.png

 
Gray1042.png

 
Gray1043.png

 
Gray1044.png

 
Gray1045.png

 
Gray1046.png

 
Gray1047.png

 
Gray1048.png

 
Gray1049.png

 
Gray1050.png

 
Gray1051.png

 
Gray1052.png

 
Gray1053.png

 
Gray1054.png

 
Gray1056.png

 
Gray1057.png

 
Gray1058.png

 
Gray1059.png

 
Gray1060.png

 
Gray1061.png

 
Gray1062.png

 
Gray1063.png

 
Gray1064.png

 
Gray1070.png

 
Gray1071.png

 
Gray1072.png

 
Gray1073.png

 
Gray1074.png

 
Gray1075.png

 
Gray1076.png

 
Gray1077.png

 
Gray1079.png

 
Gray1080.png

 
Gray1081.png

 
Gray1082.png

 
Gray1083.png

 
Gray1084.png

 
Gray1085.png

 
Gray1086.png

 
Gray1087.png

 
Gray1088.png

 
Gray1089.png

 
Gray1092.png

 
Gray1094.png

 
Gray1095.png

 
Gray1097.png

 
Gray1098.png

 
Gray1099.png

 
Gray1100.png

 
Gray1101.png

 
Gray1102.png

 
Gray1103.png

 
Gray1104.png

 
Gray1106.png

 
Gray1107.png

 
Gray1108.png

 
Gray1109.png

 
Gray1110.png

 
Gray1111.png

 
Gray1112.png

 
Gray1113.png

 
Gray1114.png

 
Gray1115.png

 
Gray1116.png

 
Gray1117.png

 
Gray1118.png

 
Gray1119.png

 
Gray1120.png

 
Gray1121.png

 
Gray1122.png

 
Gray1123.png

 
Gray1124.png

 
Gray1125.png

 
Gray1126.png

 
Gray1128.png

 
Gray1131.png

 
Gray1132.png

 
Gray1133.png

 
Gray1136.png

 
Gray1137.png

 
Gray1138.png

 
Gray1140.png

 
Gray1142.png

 
Gray1143.png

 
Gray1144.png

 
Gray1145.png

 
Gray1146.png

 
Gray1148.png

 
Gray1149.png

 
Gray1150.png

 
Gray1152.png

 
Gray1153.png

 
Gray1154.png

 
Gray1155.png

 
Gray1156.png

 
Gray1157.png

 
Gray1158.png

 
Gray1159.png

 
Gray1160.png

 
Gray1161.png

 
Gray1162.png

 
Gray1163.png

 
Gray1166.png

 
Gray1167.png

 
Gray1168.png

 
Gray1169.png

 
Gray1170.png

 
Gray1171.png

 
Gray1172.png

 
Gray1174.png

 
Gray1175.png

 
Gray1176.png

 
Gray1177.png

 
Gray1178.png

 
Gray1179.png

 
Gray1180.png

 
Gray1181.png

 
Gray1182.png

 
Gray1183.png

 
Gray1184.png

 
Gray1186.png

 
Gray1187.png

 
Gray1188.png

 
Gray1189.png

 
Gray1190.png

 
Gray1191.png

 
Gray1192.png

 
Gray1193.png

 
Gray1194.png

 
Gray1197.png

 
Gray1198.png

 
Gray1199.png

 
Gray1200.png

 
Gray1201.png

 
Gray1202.png

 
Gray1203.png

 
Gray1205.png

 
Gray1206.png

 
Gray1207.png

 
Gray1208.png

 
Gray1209.png

 
Gray1210.png

 
Gray1211.png

 
Gray1212.png

 
Gray1213.png

 
Gray1214.png

 
Gray1215.png

 
Gray1216.png

 
Gray1217.png

 
Gray1218.png

 
Gray1219.png

 
Gray1220.png

 
Gray1221.png

 
Gray1222.png

 
Gray1223.png

 
Gray1224.png

 
Gray1225.png

 
Gray1226.png

 
Gray1227.png

 
Gray1229.png

 
Gray1231.png

 
Gray1232.png

 
Gray1233.png

 
Gray1234.png

 
Gray1235.png

 
Gray1236.png

 
Gray1237.png

 
Gray1238.png

 
Gray1240.png

 
Gray1241.png

 
Gray1242.png

 
Gray1244.png

 
Gray1245.png

 
Gray1246.png

 
Gray1247.png

 
Specimen at 100X with arrow

 
Specimen at 40X with arrow

 
Optical Miscroscope Smaller

 
Optical Micsroscope

 
Centronuclear Myopathy with arro

 
Centronuclear Myopathy

 
NADH stained skeletal muscle fro

 
CCD - ATPase with label

 
CCD COX with arrow

 
CCD NADH with arrow

 
Sample Image with arrow

 
Another test image with arrow

 
Creutz Cell with arrow

 
TLDL creutzfeldt cell with arrow

 
Lewy Body x600 with arrow

 
NADH - normal muscle

 
Acetylcholine

 
Acetylcholine

 
Meningioma - Contrast CT

 
H&E - Example of pathological fi

 
Optic Tract Glioma with arrow

 
Gemistocytic Astrocytoma H&E wit

 
This is a test with arrow with a

 
This is a test with arrow

 
Ependymal Pseudorosette with arr

 
True ependymal rosettes x400 wit

 
Freidreich Ataxia Spinal Cord -

 
Posterior Commissure Coronal wit

 
Anterior Commissure Coronal - Ca

 
Anterior Commissure Coronal - La

 
Basal Ganglia Coronal Close - In

 
Basal Ganglia Coronal Close - La

 
Basal Ganglia Coronal Close - Fo

 
Basal Ganglia Coronal Close - CC

 
Basal Ganglia Coronal Close - Nu

 
Basal Ganglia Coronal Close - Cl

 
Basal Ganglia Coronal Close - Pu

 
Basal Ganglia Coronal Close- Cau

 
Basal Ganglia Coronal Close - Se

 
Basal Ganglia Coronal Close - In

 
Ragged Red Fiber Trichrome with

 
Ragged Red Fiber Trichrome

 
Sural Nerve

 
Lateral Femoral Cutaneous Nerve

 
Ilioinguinal Nerve

 
Deep Peroneal Nerve

 
Anterior Femoral Cutaneous Nerve

 
Circle of Willis - Basilar with

 
Nemaline Trichrome x400 with cir

 
Angiocentric glioma x400 with ar

 
hyaline inclusions trichrome x20

 
Anterior Commissure Coronal with

 
Circle of Willis Dissected - Ant

 
Circle of Willis Dissected - bas

 
Circle of Willis Dissected - SCA

 
Circle of Willis Dissected - PCA

 
Circle of Willis Dissected - PCO

 
Circle of Willis Dissected - ICA

 
Circle of Willis Dissected - ACO

 
Circle of Willis Dissected - A2

 
Circle of Willis Dissected - A1

 
Circle of Willis Dissected - MCA

 
Tuberous Sclerosis SEGA and Nodu

 
Alcoholic Cerebellar Degeneratio

 
CCD COX with arrow

 
Temporal Artery Surgical Exposur

 
Inclusion Body Myositis H&E 200

 
Inclusion body myositis trichrom

 
Tub Agg Trichrome x400 with arro

 
IBM trichrome with highlighted r

 
Inclusion body myositis x400 wit

 
Trichrome IBM hp Inclusions

 
HIV encephalopathy Multinucleate

 
MRI Wernicke with Arrows

 
Psammomatous Melanotic Schwannom

 
GFAP hp

 
GFAP island H&E hp

 
schwannoma

 
menigioangiomatosis 40x H&E

 
Primary Melanoma H&E

 
Primary Meningeal Melanoma H&E

 
Primary Meningeal Melanoma H&E x

 
Sclerotic Meningioangiomatosis H

 
Tumoral Calcinosis H&E

 
Intestinal Ganglioneuromatosis H

 
Miliary Metastases Cerebellum H&

 
Hypothalamic Hamartoma Surgical

 
Arach Melanocytosis

 
Microcystic Meningioma H&E

 
Papillary Meningioma H&E

 
Rhabdoid meningioma Smear x400

 
Rhabdoid meningioma x200

 
Rhabdoid meningioma x400

 
Rhabdoid Meningioma H&E

 
Metastatic Carcinoma IVth Ventri

 
Chordoid Meningioma H&E

 
Clear Cell Menigioma H&E

 
Neuroblastoma Abundant Neuropil

 
Desmoplastic Medulloblastoma H&E

 
Homer Wright Rosettes

 
Medulloblastoma with extensive n

 
Medulloblastoma with extensive n

 
Medulloblastoma With Extensive N

 
Reactive Astrocyte Medulloblasto

 
Spindle Cell Oncocytoma H&E

 
ATRT 2

 
ATRT 1

 
Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumor

 
Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumor

 
Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumor

 
Anaplastic Medulloblastoma H&E

 
Classic Medulloblastoma H&E

 
Desmoplastic medulloblastoma Ret

 
Desmoplastic medulloblastoma Syn

 
Lymphocytic Hypophysitis H&E

 
Lymphocytic Hypophysitis Synapto

 
Normal Pituitary H&E

 
Germinoma H&E

 
Acidophil Stem Cell Adenoma H&E

 
Crooke Hyaline Change Pituitary

 
Schwannomas 100 lp

 
Schwannoma Antoni A& B

 
SCHWAN HP

 
Vestibular Schwannoma Ventral

 
oligodendroglioma H&E

 
Oligodendroglioma minigemistocyt

 
Oligodendroglioma Smear H&E

 
Schwannoma EMA

 
Schwannoma GFAP lp

 
Schwannoma Low Power

 
Schwannoma LP

 
Angiocentric glioma synaptophysi

 
Intramedullary Ependymoma Transv

 
Myxopapillary Ependymoma H&E

 
Tanycytic Ependymoma H&E

 
Colloid Cyst Wall H&E

 
Craniopharyngioma Coronal Close

 
Craniopharyngioma Ventral Close

 
Craniopharyngioma Wet Keratin H&

 
Rathke Cyst H&E

 
Rathke LP

 
Anaplastic Ependymoma H&E

 
Clear Cell Ependymoma H&E

 
Ependymoma H&E

 
Optic Glioma H&E

 
Pilocytic Astrocytoma H&E

 
Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma H&E

 
Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma Su

 
Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocyt

 
Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocyt

 
Microvascular Proliferation H&E

 
Infiltrating Glioma Thalmus NFih

 
Inflitrating Glioma Thalamus x20

 
Tectal Glioma H&E

 
Thalamic Glioma Sagittal

 
Gemistocytic Astrocytoma H&E

 
Chronic Wernicke Coronal

 
Wernicke encephalopathy Pontine

 
Anaplastic Astrocytoma Pencil Bu

 
PVL H&E HP

 
Neonatal porencephaly coronal

 
Neonatal porencephaly lateral

 
Porencephalywith Secondary Tract

 
Porencephaly In Situ 65 year-old

 
Porencephaly Right Hemisphere 2

 
Porencephaly Right Hemisphere In

 
Acute Lead Encephalopathy Dorsal

 
Alcoholic Cerebellar Degeneratio

 
Grinker Myelinopathy

 
Grinker Myelinopathy Close Up

 
Methanol Intoxication Coronal

 
Organizing PVL H&E

 
Unilateral Hemorrhagic Necrosis

 
Hemorrhagic PVL coronal

 
Periventricular Leukomalacia Wit

 
Periventricular Leukomalacia Wit

 
Periventricular Leukomalacia Wit

 
Periventricular White Matter Inf

 
Hydranencephaly Ventral

 
MCE whole mount

 
Multicystic Encephalopathy Brain

 
Multicystic Encephalopathy Coron

 
Multicystic Encephalopathy Horiz

 
Multicystic Encephalopathy In Si

 
Status Marmoratuswith MCE

 
Acute Brainstem Necrosis HE

 
Hypotensive brainstem necrosis

 
Hypotensive Brainstem Necrosis

 
Mineralized neurons H&E

 
Hippocampus Coronal

 
Swiss Cheese Coronal Multiple

 
Thalamus Coronal Close Up

 
Thalamus Coronal

 
Germ Matrix Hem HE

 
Intraventricular Hem Coronal

 
Intraventricular Hemorrhage coro

 
Intraventricular Hemorrhage vent

 
IVH Ventral

 
Massive Hydrocephalus Post IVH

 
Periventricular Hemorrhagic Infa

 
Post IVH hydrocephalus Coronal

 
Subependymal hemorrhage

 
Mitochondrial Inclusions

 
HSMN x200 resin

 
HSMN x400 resin

 
HSMN x600

 
myofibrillary myopathy x100

 
Rhabdomyolysis x400

 
Ring NADH

 
Titinopathy paraffin x200

 
IBM trichrome

 
IBM tricrome HP

 
Inclusion body myositis trichrom

 
Inclusion body myositis trichrom

 
Trichrome IBM hp

 
Churg-Strauss x200

 
Churg strauss x100

 
Churg Strauss x40

 
Dermatomyositis in lymphoma pati

 
Myositis in lymphoma patient x20

 
Perivent Plaque CD68 IHC

 
CCD NADH

 
hyaline inclusions trichrome x20

 
Nemaline Trichrome x400

 
Tub Agg NADH x400

 
Tub Agg Trichrome x400

 
Target fibers NADH

 
Diabetic thigh infarct x200

 
Congenital muscular dystrophy x2

 
MS Cervical Cord

 
Hurst001

 
Machiafava Bignami Coronal

 
TLDL edge H&E

 
TLDL CD68 IHC

 
TLDL HP

 
VWMD spheroids

 
VWMD Thalamus

 
Astrocyte pleomorphism in TLDL

 
Leigh BG coronal

 
Leigh Midbrain Transverse

 
Adrenoleukodystrophy Horizontal

 
Krabbe H&E

 
Pelizaeus Merzbacher Coronal Clo

 
VWMD chromatolysis

 
Progressive Multifocal Leukoence

 
Progressive Multifocal Leukoence

 
Progressive Multifocal Leukoence

 
Progressive Multifocal Leukoence

 
Thal WNV

 
Perivascular Granuloma H&E

 
HIV encephalopathy H&E

 
HIV encephalopathy p24 IHC

 
Herpes Simplex Encephalitis Cing

 
Herpes Simplex Encephalitis Temp

 
Herpes Simplex Encephalitis Vent

 
JC virus ISH

 
Prion IHC cerebrum

 
Prion VV2 Cerebellum Sagittal wi

 
Type 2 prion Cerebellum IHC

 
Prion IHC florid plaque

 
Granulomatous Meningitis H&E

 
JCD occipital IHC x200

 
JCD occipital IHC x40

 
Prion Cerebral Biopsy H&E

 
Prion IHC cerebellum

 
Prion IHC cerebellum 2

 
Cysticercosis Horizontal Close U

 
Cysticercosis Surgical Hemisecti

 
Echinococcal Cyst Temporal Coron

 
Gerstmann Straussler Hippocampus

 
GSS HC HP

 
GSS hippocampus LP

 
JCD cerebellum IHC x100

 
Phaeohyphomycosis Lateral

 
Phaeomycosis GMS x600

 
Phaeomycosis H&E LP

 
Phaeomycosis H&E HP

 
Phaeomycosis PAS x100

 
Acanthameba Coronal Close Up

 
Cysticerc HP

 
Cysticercosis H&E Low Power

 
Aspergillus Bx HP

 
Candida Coronal Whole Mount PAS

 
Coccidiodes Meningitis H&E

 
Cryptococcus HP

 
Histoplasmoma H&E

 
Phaeohyphomycosis Base

 
Phaeohyphomycosis Hemi Coronal

 
Steril Abscess Thalamus Horizont

 
Congenital Syphilis Base

 
Chronic Meningitis Obstructing C

 
Encephalocele Occipital Ventral

 
Inenecephaly

 
Lochenshadel

 
Medulla Mitochondrial Encephalop

 
Anencephaly Lateral

 
Anencephaly Dorsal

 
Chiari Dorsal Brain Stem

 
Chiari II Cord & Post Fossa

 
Chiari II full Legnth

 
Chiari Mid Sagittal Adult

 
Chiari Ventral Brain Stem

 
Cranio Rachiscisis Dorsal Body

 
Ischemic Micrenceohaly Lateral

 
Posterior Fossa Arachnoid Cyst S

 
Temporal Lobe Arachnoid Cyst Ven

 
Laminar And WM Necrosis Mitichon

 
Leigh BG coronal

 
Leigh Midbrain Transverse

 
Leigh Subthalamic Coronal

 
Tay Sachs Cerebellum Coronals

 
Bilateral Perisylvian Ulegyria W

 
Pachygyria Coronal

 
Periventricular Nodular Heteroto

 
Zonal Heterotop Coronal

 
Dandy-Walker Whole Mount Myelin

 
Ecchordosis Physalifera

 
Palmini 2b HP

 
White Matter Neurons

 
White Matter Neurons NFihc

 
Cyclopia Holoprosencephaly

 
Holoprosencephaly Coronal

 
Holoprosencephaly Dorsal Floatin

 
Holoprosencephaly Ventral Close

 
Holoprosencephaly Ventralwith Du

 
Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis V

 
Palmini 1b HP

 
Palmini 2a HP

 
amygdala Corp Amylacea HP

 
PSP Globose NFT Substantia Nigra

 
Subthalamic NFT in PSP

 
Thalamotomy for Parkinson Diseas

 
Dentate nucleus grumose change

 
Lewy Body Substantia Nigra H&E

 
MSA Inferior Olive Synuclein Hig

 
Pleomorphic LB x600

 
PSP Coronal Subthalamic

 
Hered Dyspasic Dementia Coronal

 
Posterior Lobar Atrophy Lateral

 
Fredreich Ataxia Spinal Cord Who

 
Hereditary Diffuse Leukoencephal

 
Huntington With Control Coronal

 
Huntington Coronal Grade IV

 
SCA cerebellar Folia H&E

 
amygdala synuclein IHC

 
Surgical BX Ubiquitin IHC early

 
ALS anterior horn cells ubiquiti

 
ALS anterior horn cells ubiquiti

 
FTLD-Udentate Ubiq IHC

 
FTLD Coronal Hemisphere

 
ADhippocampus King Stain x40

 
Alzheimer Disease Amyloid IHC

 
Alzheimer Disease NFTin Locus Ce

 
Alzheimer Disease Ventral Brain

 
Hippocampus silver stain

 
Hippocampus silver stain x200

 
Insular Tau cotton Wool Plaque.

 
PS1 BAMihc

 
Angioma Trichrome

 
Multiple Angioma Brain Coronal w

 
Cortical Venous Thrombosis Later

 
SSS Thrombus Cut Section

 
Venous Thrombosis Dorsal Shaken2

 
AD-Hippocampus x40

 
Temporal Arteritis Low Power H&E

 
Aneurysm Wall HP

 
Aneurysm Wall Movat HP

 
aneurysm Wall Trichrom

 
Cerebra Edema due to SAH In Situ

 
Ruptured ACoA with Clip Ventral

 
Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Ventral

 
Thrombosed Basilar Aneurysm Tran

 
JTAE HP

 
PACNS LM HP

 
Hemorrhagic Pineal Cyst

 
Basal Ganglia Hemorrhage Horizon

 
Ceerebellar Hemorrhage Transvers

 
Pontine Hemorrhage Sagittal

 
Pontine Hemorrhage Transverse Mu

 
Putaminal Hemorrhage Coronal

 
Thalamic Hemorrhage Coronal

 
Cord Hemorrhage Leukemia Dorsal

 
Cord Hemorrhage Leukemia Transve

 
Granular Atrophy Close Up

 
IIrd Nerve Compression Transtent

 
Midbrain Hemorrhage from Transte

 
Malignant Hypertension Edema

 
Multiple Angioma Brain Ventral w

 
TTP Horizontal

 
GANS HP

 
Fat Emboli Fresh Coronal

 
Organizing MCA with Secondary CS

 
Recent MCAWhole Mount

 
PICA hemmorrhagic Cerebellar

 
Thalamic Infarct Coronal

 
Basilar Thrombus Ventral

 
Internal Carotid Thrombus

 
Thromboembolus

 
Thromboembolus LP

 
Amyloid Angiopathy H&E

 
Amyloid Angiopathy IHC

 
amyloid Angiopathy

 
Amyloid Angiopathy IHC

 
Lobar Hemorrhage Coronal

 
Watershed Infarcts Hemisphere Co

 
Axonal Injury BAM10 HP

 
Eosinophilic Neuronal Degenerati

 
Eosinophilic Neuronal Degenerati

 
Eosinophilic Neuronal Degenerati

 
Primary CNS lymphoma x40

 
Primary CNS Lymphoma x400

 
Dural Malt Lymphoma x400

 
Dura Malt Lymphoma x100

 
Large B-cell Lymphoma Leg

 
Leg Lymphomamet Braib x200

 
PCNSL-hp

 
PCNSL crush x40

 
Hemangioblastoma

 
Hemangioblastoma H&E

 
Spine Amyloidoma HP

 
IVL cd20hp

 
ivl hp

 
Dysembryoplastic Neuroepithelial

 
Dysembryoplastic Neuroepithelial

 
Dysembryoplastic Neuroepithelial

 
Dysembryoplastic Neuroepthelial

 
Lhermitte-Duclos H&E

 
Lhermitte-Duclos Whole Mount H&E

 
Lhermitte Duclos Surgical Exposu

 
Central Neurocytoma H&E

 
Rosetted Glioneuronal Tumor IVth

 
Cerebellar Hemagioblastoma Dorsa

 
Cer Hemangioblast lp

 
Angiocentric Glioma H&E

 
Chronic Wernicke Coronal

 
Acute Wernicke Midbrain Transver

 
Gomori Trichrome Nemaline Rods 2

 
Acute neuronal necrosis cerebell

 
Acute neuronal necrosis - cerebe

 
A Foot

 
Amyloid Angiopathy Labeled

 
H&E Stain of an Anaplastic Astro

 
Note to gliageek 2

 
Note to gliageek 1

 
Gray - Brachial Plexus

 
Pronator teres

 
Gray - Nerves of upper extremity

 
Contained hypertensive putaminal

 
Intramedullary hemorrhage in a p

 
Intramedullary hemorrhage in a p

 
Hypertensive hemorrhage with rup

 
Organized putaminal hemorrhage

 
Hemorrhagic pineal cyst

 
Chiari on Sagittal MRI

 
Transtentorial herniation with s

 
Subarachnoid hemorrhage, base of

 
Subarachnoid hemorrhage, base of

 
Cortical venous thrombosis in a

 
Superior sagittal sinus thrombus

 
Cavernous malformation, trichrom

 
Foix-alajounine syndrome, spinal

 
Arteriovenous malformation, with

 
Arteriovenous malformation

 
Top of the basilar artery aneury

 
Basilar artery aneurysm, thrombo

 
Basilar artery aneurysm, thrombo

 
Basilar artery aneurysm, thrombo

 
Giant saccular aneurysm, thrombo

 
Giant middle cerebral artery ane

 
Saccular (berry) aneur

 
Pontine hemorrhages in a patient

 
Multiple intraparenchymal hemorr

 
Petechial intracortical hemorrha

 
Transtentorial herniation with u

 
Acute bilateral tonsillar hernia

 
Granulomatous angiitis of the ce

 
Granulomatous angiitis of the ce

 
lPACNSmvhp

 
Juvenile temporal arteritis with

 
Granular atrophy of the cerebral

 
Hypertensive thalamic hemorrhage

 
Hypertensive pontine hemorrhage

 
Hypertensive pontine hemorrhage,

 
Lobar hemorrhage secondary to ru

 
Petechial intramedullary hemorrh

 
Intramedullary hemorrhage in a p

 
Hypertensive cerebellar hemorrha

 
Hypertensive pontine hemorrhage

 
Hypertensive putaminal hemorrhag

 
Lobar hemorrhages secondary to a

 
Primary pontine hemorrhage in a

 
Primary pontine hemorrhage in a

 
Dorsolateral medullary infarct

 
Middle cerebral artery distribut

 
Whole Mount section of recent MC

 
Right posterior inferior cerebel

 
Right posterior inferior cerebel

 
Posterior cerebral artery distri

 
Innumerable pericapillary hemorr

 
Basilar artery thrombosis

 
Organizing infarct, left posteri

 
Dorsal medullary infarct without

 
Recent infarct, dorsal medulla

 
Thromboembolic occlusion, cerebe

 
Cavitating infarcts within middl

 
Carotid artery thrombus

 
Hemorrhagic necrosis, posterior

 
Bilateral pallidal necrosis with

 
Unilateral thalamic infarct

 
Recent hemorrhagic infarct, righ

 
Arterial Border Zone Infarcts, u

 
Ammons Horn Sclerosis

 
Bilateral hemorrhagic infarcts,

 
Cerebellar Sclerosis

 
BilAmyGHemA92_80

 
galenRight

 
galenRight2

 
A07-35PS1HP

 
FLDantHCclose

 
FLDhemiCor

 
FLDhemicorant

 
FLDhoriz

 
HeredDyspasicDementiaA96-33

 
PostCerebAtrophyLat

 
FredreichCord

 
HDcor

 
HDLSparietal

 
HDvCntrlCor

 
MSAcystsHorizontal

 
MSAhemiputamen094_5

 
PSPdenthp

 
PSPsnhp

 
Thalamotomy1976

 
CorHP

 
SagHP

 
HPE

 
HPE001

 
HPE005

 
HPE2

 
HPEfloating

 
HPE_cyclopia_1

 
HPE_leukenschaedel_1

 
HPE_tri13_1

 
HPE_tri13_2

 
TaySachs1

 
TaySachs2

 
HemimegKluverWM

 
HemimegSurgCor

 
HME

 
NodHetero2

 
NodHeterotop1

 
PachygyriaCor

 
ZonalHeterotopCor

 
AHSHE

 
ArachCyst

 
CHtubermp

 
Ecchordosis1

 
Ecchordosis2

 
MicrocephIschemicLateral

 
ChiariBelow

 
ChiariDorsal003

 
ChiariIId

 
ChiariII_fullLegnth

 
ChiariKink

 
ChiariLateral004

 
ChiariMB

 
ChiariMidSag1

 
ChiariSide

 
ChiariVentral001

 
ChiariVentral002

 
Craniopharyngioma001

 
CranioRach

 
Encephalocele1

 
Encephalocele2

 
Inenecephaly

 
Lochenshadel

 
KrabbeHP

 
neonatalKrabbehp

 
Leigh1

 
Leigh1b

 
Leigh1c

 
Leigh2a

 
Leigh2b

 
Machiafava001

 
sagittalhp

 
sagittalhpplAT

 
VWMDchromatolysis

 
VWMD_Thalamus

 
A0472THAL_MS

 
Hurst001

 
Pes Cavus

 
BECTS

 
SEGA micro

 
Skull Base Foramina

 
Nemaline

 
Muscle Cytochrome Oxidase

 
GBM 02

 
GBM 01

 
Rosenthal Fibers

 
Amyloid Plaques

 
Amyloid plaques and angiopathy

 
Cavernous Angioma 2

 
Cavernous Angioma

 
EM IBM

 
Capillary Telangiectases

 
Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

 
Substantia nigra Virchow Robin

 
Substantia nigra neuromelanin

 
Substantia nigra

 
Cerebellum Neonate Purkinje Cell

 
Cerebellum Neonate

 
Cerebellum Neonate PCL

 
Cerebellum Neonatal ML 2

 
Cerebellum Neonate ML

 
Cerebellum Neonate GCL

 
Cerebellum Neonate EGCL 2

 
Cerebellum Neonate EGCL

 
MRI T2 Encephalitis

 
EEG Normal with Mu

 
Angiogram 2 MCA M1 again

 
Angiogram 2 MCA M1

 
Angiogram 2 ICA Petrous

 
Angiogram 2 ICA Cervical

 
Angiogram 2 ICA Supraclinoid

 
Angiogram 2 ICA Cavernous

 
Angiogram 2 ACA ACOM

 
Angiogram 2 ACA A2

 
Angiogram 2 ACA A1

 
Map of the San Joaquin Valley

 
Map of Ohio River Basin

 
Map of Mississippi River Basin

 
Sacral Dimple

 
Angiogram Opthalmic

 
Angiogram ICA Supraclinoid

 
Angiogram ICA Petrous

 
Angiogram ICA Cervical

 
Angiogram ICA Cavernous

 
Angiogram ACA A2

 
Grizzly Bear

 
MRV Transverse Sinus

 
MRV Straight Sinus

 
MRV SSS

 
MRV Internal Cerebral Vein

 
MRA Gad Bolus Left Subclavian Ar

 
MRA Gad Bolus Left MCA

 
MRA Gad Bolus Left ICA

 
MRA Gad Bolus Left ECA

 
MRA Gad Bolus Left CCA

 
MRA Gad Bolus Left Carotid Bifur

 
MRA Gad Bolus Right Vertebral Ar

 
MRA Gad Bolus Right CCA

 
MRA Gad Bolus Innominate

 
MRA Gad Bolus Aortic Arch

 
Angiogram transverse sinus

 
Angiogram torcula

 
Angiogram superior sagittal sinu

 
Angiogram sigmoid sinus

 
Angiogram jugular bulb

 
Angiogram jugular vein

 
MRI Gad Bolus ACA

 
EEG slowing in hyperventilation

 
Anterior Leukodystrophy MRI T2

 
3Hz Spike and wave 01

 
Wenicke Encephalopathy

 
Optic Glioma

 
Bilateral Acoustic Neuromas

 
Port Wine

 
Ring-enhancing Lesion MRI

 
Tilt Table Syncope

 
Tilt Table Orthostatic Hypotensi

 
Tilt Table POTS

 
Adam FNF Essential

 
Adam FNF Intention

 
Adam FNF Normal

 
Adam FNF Parkinson

 
Fasciculus Gracilis C6 MRI

 
Metachromatic Leukodystrophy MRI

 
Schizencephaly MRI

 
Stroke Right PCA

 
AVM

 
AVM

 
AVM

 
AVM

 
EEG normal sleep

 
EEG PLEDs right

 
EEG normal tachycardia

 
EEG FIRDA

 
EEG FIRDA

 
EEG FIRDA

 
EEG FIRDA

 
EEG normal with EKG artifact

 
EEG normal with EKG artifact

 
EEG normal with EKG artifact

 
EEG normal drowsy slow eye movem

 
EEG normal with eye movements

 
EEG alpha coma

 
EEG artifacts

 
Neuroblastoma

 
Neuroblastoma

 
Neuroblastoma

 
Neuroblastoma

 
Lewy body

 
Lewy Body

 
Lewy body

 
Lewy Body

 
Ganglioneuroblastoma

 
Ganglioneuroblastoma

 
Ganglioneuroblastoma

 
Ganglioneuroblastoma

 
Amyloid Plaque NIA

 
Amyloid Plaque NIA

 
Amyloid Plaque NIA

 
Amyloid Plaque NIA

 
Septo-optic Dysplasia

 
Gross Brain Highlighting Medial

 
Alexia without Agraphia 01

 
Vitruvian RUE Axillary

 
Gray812

 
Venus Radial

 
Venus Lower Trunk

 
Venus Median